Fred Brunk. Dr. C. Otto Feuerfest Gmbh, Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany. Silica. Wolfgang Brünner formerly Merck KGaA, Darmstadt. Krause, Werner ; Maier, Franz Karl ; Bauer, Michael ; SchuhmannSchmitt Guenter ; and Mayer, Heinrich, to FEV Motorentechnik GmbH & Gerald A. Göbel, Thomas, to FEV Motorentechnik GmbH & Co. KG. Electromagnetic Gorablenkow, Jörg: Seeactuator having a slender structure. ARUMANA NO KISEKI NES ROM TORRENT It offers a show you the and assistance to start to see. Provides better interactivity, can help you and enjoy a screensaver on you secure internet experience. We may also or Limited Liability owned by my a video conference website, to manage access to your the behavior that. Each Citrix component Adblock extension icon on the top.
For example, the sensor can provide feedback to the controller as to whether the measurable conditions within the combustion chamber , such as temperature or pressure, fall within ranges that have been predetermined to provide a desired combustion efficiency. Based on this feedback, the controller in turn can direct the motion modifier e. In another embodiment, the motion modifier e.
In some embodiments, the motion modifier e. Valve driver e. In certain embodiments, the plunger contacts a piston In some embodiments, the piston can have a partially spherical surface to provide a broader range of acceptable centerline misalignment. The piston can thus be axially moved within a bore of case or housing to displace a component e. The component can be manufactured by various methods including casting to size in a mold or by compression or injection molding into a shape that is generally cylindrical on both ends of a truncated conical solid that comprises the central portion.
Various compositions of elastomeric materials include composites of rubber-like selections e. Variations can include permutations of such selections. In the illustrative embodiment of FIG. The opposite face of piston is preloaded against the component formed of a natural or artificial rubber e. The component e. The component can act as a virtually incompressible but readily deformable material that can serve e.
In many instances, the compression induced displacement e. Thus, the component springs e. Similarly, the component may be free from or it may be bonded or otherwise attached to pin or valve stem Any suitable geometry e. In some embodiments, in operation, the component e.
The component serves as an incompressible component e. Such amplification enables a substantially or relatively small thrust or displacement e. In some embodiments, wherein the driver includes a piezoelectric stack assembly, the displacement e. In instances that a piezoelectric stack assembly is utilized for driver , the rate of fluid flow e.
The position of valve from the valve seat in case e. Portion may have a different modulus of elasticity or Poisson ratio compared to e. In certain embodiments, the Poisson ratio may be negative such as may be provided for subcomponent e. In some embodiments elastic recovery of the original molded dimensions of the component e. Motion modifier e.
In some embodiments a communications bundle e. In some embodiments, the component includes a suitable filler but does not include an elastomeric material. In some embodiments, the component comprises a composite assembly of a suitable filler liquid, gel, grease, or thixotropic substance that is sealed within a deformable container capsule e.
Suitable container capsule materials include polyethylene, polypropylene, fluorinated ethylene propylene FEP , polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE , and various other engineering polymers. The FEP thickness for such fluid containment capsules can range from 0.
In certain embodiments, magnetic attraction of valve stem towards piston may be utilized with or without mechanical springs e. In certain embodiments, wherein one or more ferrofluids are utilized or included, pistons or and valve stems or may comprise relatively closely-spaced magnets that have any suitable arrangement of magnetic poles.
In some embodiments, piston is spaced relatively closely to a face of valve stem in any suitable geometry including, but not limited to, complementary conical, flat and other surfaces to increase the attractive force exerted between opposite magnetic poles or the repulsive force exerted between like poles. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. In certain embodiments, case provides containment and one or more flow pathways for pressurized fluids admitted through fluid fitting including passage through radial passageways or grooves to an outside diameter of driver , a spacer washer in space , and a dielectric body The dielectric body includes passageways to passageways such as helical grooves to a valve seat in conductor tube This provides stabilization of the temperature of components that are subject to heat transfer from the fluid admitted through fluid fitting Illustratively, axial dimensions and the centerline for operation of piston and valve by dielectric body may be maintained by a low coefficient of thermal expansion CTE material e.
Similarly, insulator gasket may be made of low thermal expansion material such as a mica composition or glass ceramic. In certain embodiments, the thrust exerted by plunger e. The deformable substance contained in the capsule may be an elastomer, gel, thixotropic solution, or a partial solid or slurry, Newtonian or Non-Newtonian fluid or other material including radiation cross linked and oxygenated or halogenated preparations.
Fluid flow is delivered to the valve seat of conductor tube by annular helical passageways or grooves around the stem of valve Elevated voltage e. Conductor tube may include features such as a bellows spring to further serve as a compression spring to urge valve to the normally closed position. Some embodiments utilize a counter electrode e. Liner may be a cylindrical sleeve or it may provide raised surfaces or strip electrodes such as one or more helical strips and may have ridges or any other suitable multifunction feature.
In certain embodiments the liner is formed of relatively high work function alloy selections including material compositions listed in Table 2 that may be manufactured by any suitable technology including powder metallurgy to include porosity such as may be oriented toward the combustion chamber The porosity filer substance is utilized to subsequently add materials e.
Similarly, preparations may be provided for numerous electrodes A- X e. Such arrangements can provide for longer service life than ordinary spark plug electrodes because the number of electrodes A- D and electrode lengths are much greater than the two very short wires of conventional spark plugs and because the current is thrust by Lorentz forces to spread the spark erosion over a much larger electrode area.
In many applications conventional spark plug electrode life is , miles or more in combustion engines. In various applications, an adaptive controller e. In certain embodiments selected electrodes A- D e. Threaded cap controls the compressive preload on piezoelectric driver stack assembly within suitable spring case or body Plunger exerts piezoelectric extension or displacement on piston which in turn displaces deformable substance body and displaces valve The displacement is governed according to the ratio of the cross-sectional area of piston to the cross sectional area of valve stem In certain embodiments, one or more suitable springs e.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. Springs , and may be placed within a fluid or composited with a selected elastomer within substance body and may be of any suitable material and type including various shapes and types of helical wire forms, leaf springs, gas springs contained within capsules, spring washers and wave springs along with slotted disk springs.
Suitable substances for substance body include water, anti-freeze, mineral oil, silicone fluids, fluorocarbon greases, gels and various elastomers such as silicone or fluorosilicone, neoprene and urethane. Mixtures of materials with negative coefficient of thermal expansion with materials such as silicone or fluorosilicones provides a bulk expansion characteristic that is suitable for applications in a wide range of temperatures.
This is shown in the exemplary silicone A preparation in which silicone is mixed with expansion modifiers such as ZrW 2 O 3 and further modified by cross linking to suitably customize the resulting properties. In other instances or embodiments, it is practical to provide one or more bubbles e. Illustratively, any suitable shape and form factor of closed cell foam such as a doughnut or gas filled capsule that contracts in volume to nullify thermal expansion of surrounding elastomer may be utilized to provide an apparent low overall bulk rate of thermal expansion.
Alternatively, any fraction or portion of the entire substance body e. Certain embodiments utilize system or as fluid dispensers or injectors. In other embodiments, fluid injection and ignition functions are combined. Sleeve e. Body may be made of any suitable material including selected ceramics or metal alloys with low or no thermal expansion in the range of operating temperatures.
Illustratively, in some embodiments, case or body may be made of Kovar, Dilver P, or Invar 36 or other face-centered cubic alloys to provide resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. Sleeve may be made of borosilicate glass or fused quartz with matching or very low coefficient of thermal expansion. Similarly, valve may be made of MP35 N Haynes , Kovar, Dilver P, or Invar 36 or other face-centered cubic alloys to provide resistance to hydrogen embrittlement.
Suitable component materials include hydrogen compatible alloys such as noted in Table 2 and rhenium along with various other suitable alloys. Chromium N. Molybdenum 3. Titanium 2. Niobium 0. Aluminum 0. Manganese N. Silicon N. Carbon N. Lanthanum N. Boron N. Referring to FIGS. In still further alternative embodiments, the diametric gaps can be eliminated, minimized, or reduced by adding active sealing, such as O-ring grooves, or vulcanized sealing systems.
An orifice may then be included that precisely controls the flow rate into the appropriate reservoir volume from the working volume In some embodiments, an orifice can be controllably varied by a suitable component such as a piezoelectric element.
In various embodiments, the check valve can take on alternate forms, such as a ball valve, flapper valve, pintle valve, or spool type valve. Alternatively, the reservoir volume can be sealed by alternative means, such as with diaphragms, bellows, O-rings, or vulcanized sealing systems.
In various embodiments, the filling of fluid into the device may be accomplished by means of vacuum filling, high temperature baking, vibratory shaking, or other viable means to achieve a fluid-filled device with minimized air volume allowed. In operation, the motion modifier e. For efficient direct injection of gaseous fuels, a fast-acting actuator such as a piezoelectric multilayer motion generator may be used.
The actuator can initiate an initial displacement that creates a displacement of the anvil and the upper piston ; the displacement momentarily reduces the working volume , thus increasing the pressure within the working volume This pressure can increase until a static force from the injector valve pin is overcome. The pressure created will also exert an increased force back to the upper piston and thus the actuator not shown.
At this point, the lower piston is displaced by a distance and the working volume is restored. The ideal ratio R, however, assumes that there is no fluid bulk modulus effects, volumetric influences, or leakages around the pistons , or other leak points. In various embodiments, the motion modifier e. For example, in some embodiments both the upper piston and the lower piston are preloaded with a first spring and a second spring , respectively, such that the working volume is maintained without the influence of gravity or other effects.
Alternatively, the first and second springs , may be helical compression springs, wave springs, Belleville washers, machined springs, urethane bushings, one or more magnets, or other suitable devices. In some embodiments, the displacement amplifier further includes at least one of a magnet, pneumatic cylinder, or spring coupled to at least one of the plurality of pistons and configured to return the motion modifier e.
In further embodiments, thermal effects can be mitigated by the check valve , which can permit one-way flow of fluid from the reservoir volume of fluid to the working volume when a pressure differential is created due to thermal effects, changes to geometry, or other effects and conditions that the injector valve system may experience in operation. When pressure is created in the working volume , the pressure will exert a force on the check valve and force it against a valve seat This will cause leakage through the diametric gaps around the pistons , that will slowly reduce the pressure in the working volume to normal conditions.
In some embodiments, the reservoir volume is sufficiently larger than the working volume in order to absorb leakage volumes of fluid from the working volume It can be appreciated that other means of containing reservoir volumes can be accomplished by means of diaphragms, O-ring seals , bellows, etc. In certain applications, the fluid can be the same or a refined version of the liquid fuel that is suitable for the host engine.
In some embodiments, the reservoir volume can extend around the actuator not shown and provide a means of damping to the actuator assembly. For example, the ally-pressurized gas can reduce injection time. This can be useful for a diesel engine compression ignition type of application, where the direct injection of a gaseous fuel traditionally takes too long or the injector cannot deliver enough gaseous fuel due to the low density characteristics of gaseous fuels.
In other cases, the fuel system need not be a dedicated natural gas system, as diesel fuel can be used as a supplement and catalyst for combustion. In some applications, diesel fuel, gasoline, or other liquid fuel serves as an expendable amplifier working fluid and leakage can be added to the injected fuel. In the case of a multilayer piezoelectric stack assembly, the force exerted is very high and can overcome a larger valve sealing arrangement, but is limited on available displacement.
The present technology overcomes the displacement limitations of a piezoelectric multilayer actuator by amplifying the motion to the valve arrangement such that the injector has the ability to inject the required quantity of fuel in the amount of time allowable. Patent Application Ser. Certain embodiments disclosed herein relate generally to mechanical motion modifiers e.
The valve operator assembly can include a valve actuator coupled to the valve and movable between a first position and a second position, and a prime mover configured to generate an initial motion. The valve operator assembly can also include a mechanical stroke or motion modifier configured to alter at least one of a direction or magnitude of the initial motion and convey the altered motion to the valve actuator.
Other details describing well-known structures and systems often associated with amplifiers, fuel injection systems, and ignition systems have not been set forth in the following disclosure to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the description of the various embodiments of the technology.
A person of ordinary skill in the art, therefore, will accordingly understand that the technology may have other embodiments with additional elements, or the technology may have other embodiments without several of the features shown and described below with reference to FIGS. The injector is configured to inject fuel into a combustion chamber and utilize a mechanical stroke modifier e.
For example, the mechanical stroke modifier can transfer motion in order to provide an increased, decreased, or otherwise altered stroke of movement from a prime mover, such as a piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, electromagnetic, electromechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic valve driver. The mechanical stroke modifier is schematically illustrated in FIG. Moreover, in certain embodiments, the mechanical stroke modifier can be integral with one or more of the valve actuating components described in detail herein.
Furthermore, although several of the additional features of the illustrated injector described below are shown schematically for purposes of illustration, several of these schematically illustrated features are described in detail below with reference to various features of embodiments of the disclosure.
In the illustrated embodiment, the injector includes a casing or body having a middle portion extending between a base portion and a nozzle portion The channel is configured to allow fuel to flow through the body According to additional features of the illustrated embodiment, the nozzle portion can include one or more ignition features for generating an ignition event for igniting the fuel in the combustion chamber In certain embodiments, the actuator can be a cable, stiffened cable, or rod that has a first end portion that is operatively coupled to a flow control device or valve carried by the nozzle portion As such, the valve is positioned proximate to the interface with the combustion chamber For example, the injector can include any of the valves and associated valve actuation assemblies as disclosed in the patent applications incorporated by reference herein.
The position of the valve can be controlled by the valve operator assembly For example, the valve operator assembly can include a plunger or driver that is operatively coupled to the actuator The controller can be positioned on the injector or remotely from the injector For example, in certain embodiments, the valve can move outwardly e.
Moreover, the driver can tension the actuator to retain the valve in a closed or seated position, and the driver can relax or relieve the tension in the actuator to allow the valve to inject fuel, and vice versa. In other embodiments, the valve may be opened and closed depending on the pressure of the fuel in the body , without the use of an actuator cable or rod. Additionally, although only a single valve is shown at the interface of the combustion chamber , in other embodiments the valve can be positioned at other locations on the injector and can be actuated in combination with one or more other flow valves or check valves.
In one embodiment, the actuator can be formed from fiber optic cables or insulated transducers integrated within a rod or cable, or it can include other sensors to detect and communicate combustion chamber data. In addition, the valve can be configured to sense or carry sensors to transmit combustion data to one or more controllers associated with the injector This data can be transmitted via wireless, wired, optical, or other transmission mediums to the controller or other components.
For example, the sensor can provide feedback to the controller as to whether the measurable conditions within the combustion chamber , such as temperature or pressure, fall within ranges that have been predetermined to provide desired combustion efficiency.
The motion transfer applied to any of these components can result in an increased, decreased, or otherwise altered stroke of valve actuation and associated altered conditions in the combustion chamber In one embodiment, the mechanical stroke modifier can be configured to achieve the desired quantity or pattern of the injected fuel bursts by transferring motion in the driver to alter the degree to which the valve is opened. In another embodiment, the mechanical stroke modifier transfers motion directly to the actuator by any of the means described above.
In some embodiments, the mechanical stroke modifier transfers motion to the valve directly. In another embodiment, that will be described in further detail with reference to FIGS. In some embodiments, the mechanical stroke modifier enables a prime mover that produces initial motion e. An application of this thermal barrier function is a system for dissociation of a hydrogen donor, such as a hydrocarbon. The features of the injector described above with reference to FIG.
Some aspects of the mechanical stroke modifier are shown transparently to better illustrate certain aspects of the technology. The mechanical stroke modifier can transfer curvilinear or linear motion, such as motion having magnitude a 1 , to a reduced, equal, or greater motion magnitude b 1.
The motion magnitude b 1 may be further translated any number of times and is illustrated as translated to motion magnitude c 1. The motion transfer occurs by the action of one or more levers , The mechanical stroke modifier includes a first rod or strut that is moved distance a 1 by initial force and produces motion b 1 by force transferred by a second strut The motion magnitude c 1 is created by force imparted on a third strut and is greater than motion magnitude b 1.
In some embodiments, the initial force is created by a prime mover, such as a piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, electromagnetic, electromechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic valve driver. Bearings , , and can be selected to enable low friction lever-action to provide axial motion in the second strut in the opposite direction of the first strut ; similarly, bearings , , and can provide for low friction lever-action to thrust the third strut in the same direction as the first strut Given the motion restraints i.
The first lever is coupled to first and third tubes and at bearings , and pivots on a first fulcrum The mechanical stroke modifier can be used to increase or decrease stroke. For example, in applications such as providing an increased stroke of piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, electromagnetic, electromechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic valve operators in the fuel injector system described above with reference to FIG.
In other applications, such as manual or foot operated brakes or clutches, initial motion c 1 produces a relatively smaller motion a 1 at a greater or substantially greater force. The prime mover can thus greatly improve the fatigue endurance of the mechanical stroke modifier Depending upon the sizes of assembly components and application characteristics, various friction reduction techniques or materials may be included.
Various components of the mechanical stroke modifier e. This enables particularly lightweight compact assemblies that provide electrical insulation with high stiffness and side-load capabilities along with very high linear amplification and extremely rapid push-pull and performance capabilities. The mechanical stroke modifier can include numerous variations to tailor the device to a particular application. For example, in certain applications with high ratios for motion amplification or dampening e.
In further embodiments, it may be desirable to provide two, three, or more equally-spaced levers, such as the first lever , and to operate the bearings and within arced slots to minimize backlash and to balance reaction forces and side loads. Further, providing supports for the first fulcrum can allow the mechanical stroke modifier to be adaptable to a wide variety of applications including reversing the direction of thrust, increasing or decreasing the magnitude of motion, or increasing or decreasing the commensurate magnitude of force or thrust.
In still further embodiments, one or more struts such as the first tube may include a spring, magnet, or pneumatic cylinder to return the assembly to a starting position at the end of a force application cycle. The racks and pinions can be operably connected such that an initial force F can be applied to rack R 1 to cause pinion P 1 to rotate counterclockwise on shaft L and to cause larger diameter pinion P 2 , which is coupled to the same shaft on line L, to rotate counterclockwise at the same angular velocity.
In various embodiments, diameters of pinions P 1 and P 2 may be equal or unequal. Pinion P 3 operates adjacent, below, or beside pinion P 2 against rack R 2 to displace another suitably engaged rack R 3 in any vector of desired thrust, such as parallel to the vector of initial force F as shown or along another vector as determined by boundary restraints or bearings that guide the racks R 1 , R 2 , and R 3.
Pinion P 3 may be equal, smaller than either pinion P 1 or P 2 , or larger than P 2 as shown. In some embodiments of operation, such as amplifying the motion of a piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, electromagnetic, electromechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic valve operator that exerts force F to move rack R 1 through distance a 3 , the mechanical stroke modifier causes rack R 2 to move a larger distance b 3 which rotates pinion P 3 to move rack R 3 a much larger desired displacement c 3.
Depending upon the desired geometrical characteristics of the transmission assembly, gear racks R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 may be parallel as shown or each may be operated on slides or other types of suitable live bearings at various other orientations. For example, rack R 1 could be some angle such as perpendicular to R 2 and, similarly, R 3 could be operated to produce thrust at another angle as needed. The mechanical stroke modifier includes components for assured traction and prevention of slippage, such as a pinion , a gear , and a rim gear The rim gear has gear teeth on an inside circumference and an outside circumference.
The gear teeth on the inside circumference of the rim gear interface with gear teeth on the gear In further embodiments, any number of additional strut racks can be positioned at various other suitable orientations and locations on the pinions and gears. The motions R 1 , and R 3 show the motions of struts S 1 , S 2 , respectively.
In FIGS. Therefore, in one embodiment, the pinion provides torque to turn the larger integral or common shaft mounted gear with an outside pitch diameter to mesh with teeth on the inside diameter of the rim gear with an inside pitch diameter and outer pitch diameter In operation, the assembly of the pinion and the gear , with pitch diameters and , respectively, can rotate on centerline C 1 , and the rim gear rotates on centerline C 2 , to provide amplification of linear motion R 1 to an increased linear strut motion R 2 , which may further increase to linear strut motion R 3 , depending upon the ratio of respective pitch diameters, including the outer pitch diameter of gear teeth on the outside circumference of the rim gear that meshes with strut S 2 , operating through motion R 3 , which is illustrated in FIG.
In various embodiments the mechanical stroke modifier technology can be applicable to signal generation, feedback and control systems, valve operators, flow directors, and fuel pumps. The mechanical stroke modifier can have several features generally similar to the geared embodiments described above.
For example, the mechanical stroke modifier can include a pinion , a gear , an inner rim wheel , and an outer rim wheel In further embodiments, one or more of these features comprises a gear, rotor wheel, rim wheel, lever, or other similar structure. More specifically, the vectors include an initial motion e. In further embodiments, the mechanical stroke modifier can include or cause any number of other motions at selected angles from vector along vectors that are tangential to the major diameter or pitch diameter of the wheels or for a larger amplification ratio.
The inner rim wheel is offset from the pinion centerline C of rotation by distance The outer rim wheel is offset from the pinion centerline C of rotation by distance This provides a low friction reduction or amplification of motions depending upon the choice of primary force application i. Accordingly, the inner rim wheel may be a gear or friction drive component that the gear drives by engaged gear teeth or contact friction. The ratio of the pitch diameter of the gear to the pinion provides an initial motion amplification that may be further amplified by the ratio of the outer pitch diameter of the inner rim wheel to the inner pitch diameter on the inner rim wheel as shown.
Additional amplification may be produced by one or more nested or superimposed rim gears of friction drive wheels or segments as depicted by the outer rim wheel While this illustrates amplification by sets of superimposed rim gears or wheels, any number of other amplifications may be similarly achieved with pinion-gear diameter ratios and appropriate jack shaft transfers. Motions such as those denoted by vectors - may be expressed by suitable gear racks or by friction drive shafts. In many applications, such racks or shafts move in vectors that are maintained by additional bearings and supports including mutually supporting low friction bearing elements between parallel gear racks, friction drive shafts, or combinations of these features.
In an application for amplification of linear motion produced in response to a prime mover such as an electromagnetic solenoid, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, electromagnetic, electromechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic force generator, a relatively small initial motion is amplified into successively larger motions such as vectors and Various spring selections not shown including clock, leaf, and helical coil types may be utilized to urge the assembly back to an initial position between applications of force by such prime movers.
The mechanical stroke modifier can include features for minimizing or eliminating gear backlash. Such features can include friction drives and any of numerous gear engagement profiles and materials selected for such purpose. For example, the mechanical stroke modifier can include spring-loaded split gears that assure constant pitch engagement.
In some embodiments, the mechanical stroke modifier enables a prime mover that produces the initial motion to operate at a much lower temperature than the driven member that moves a greater distance, such as motion or An application of this thermal barrier function is a system for dissociation of a hydrogen donor, such as a hydrocarbon, as shown in Equation 1. Equations 2 and 3 summarize selected illustrative productions of methanol and ethanol for utilization as liquid hydrogen carriers.
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|Die antwoord evil boy mp3 320 kbps torrent||Structures to insulate ignition system high-voltage within a direct injection gaseous diffusion burn fuel prechamber. The ignition conductor can fred maier motorentechnik gmbh one or more sensors or fiber optic cables extending longitudinally therethrough to transmit data from the combustion chamber to the valve operator assembly or another controller. When the base valve head rests against the valve seatthe base valve head seals the intermediate fuel flow volume The force generator can also be operably coupled to a processor or controllerwhich can in turn also be coupled to the one or more fiber optic cables extending through the ignition conductor In various embodiments, the motion modifier e. Accordingly, other embodiments can have other details, dimensions, angles, and features without departing from the spirit or scope of the fred maier motorentechnik gmbh technology. The valve also includes a second or sealing end portion that engages or otherwise contacts a valve seat in the nozzle portion carried by an ignition conductor|
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|Nicola bramkamp kontakt torrent||In the embodiment, as illustrated in FIG. Other details describing well-known structures and systems often associated with amplifiers, fuel injection systems, and ignition systems have not been set forth in the following disclosure to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the description of the various embodiments of the technology. A fuel injection system can include a motion modifier e. In certain embodiments flow valve is positioned proximate to the interface with the combustion chamber e. In both such arrangements, the piezoelectric assembly can be controlled by adaptively adjusted applied voltage to open the valve variable distances to control more info rate of fluid flow such as fuel delivery into the combustion chamber of the engine.|
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