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With the hardships going and thinking of my sister and brothers which I left at the Orphanage. My heart full of sorrows for them. By your cruelty and cal- lousness towards the Aborigines you stand condemned … If you would openly admit that the purpose of your Aborigines Legislation has been, and now is, to exterminate the Aborigines completely so that not a trace of them or of their descendants remains, we could describe you as brutal, but honest.
But you dare not admit openly that what you hope and wish is for our death! We offer three longer examples here to illustrate this predilection for prosodic realisation, which according to Halliday is characteristic of interpersonal meaning in general across levels of language. Judges are even more exposed to temptation, since they sit every day; though indeed it is a temptation of a different sort: the have enormous powers, and if they choose they may be cruel, oppressive, froward and perverse virtually without control — they may interrupt and bully, further their political views, and pervert the course of justice.
What an indictment of the bench, that one, one alone, among so many, should be so distinguished. Particularly such cricketers as these: did you see how Maitland glanced that ball away to leg? A very pretty stroke. Do not you find watching good cricket restful, absorbing, a balm to the anxious, harassed mind?
It seems to me, saving your presence, unspeakably tedious. Well played, sir! Oh very well played indeed. Feelings have depth, in other words, a feature we can perhaps interpret as affording their tendency to spill out and sprawl over a phase of discourse. This aspect of attitu- dinal meaning will be dealt with in the discussion of graduation in Chapter 3.
In these terms, judgement reworks feelings in the realm of proposals about behaviour — how we should behave or not; some of these proposals get formalised as rules and regulations administered by church and state. Appreciation on the other hand reworks feelings as propositions about the value of things — what they are worth or not; some of these valuations get formalised in systems of awards prices, grades, grants, prizes, etc.
Of course, as Painter demonstrates, learning about judgement and appreciation begins in the home in the very first stages of linguistic development as caregivers struggle to tame the wild will and voracious tastes of the emotional volcanoes they have brought into their lives. An outline of this orientation to affect at the heart of institutionalised feelings is offered as Figure 2. And this is certainly true of affect.
In order to classify emotions we adopted the strategy of mapping out the terrain as systems of oppositions. It is not clear to us, having been trained as grammarians, how to motivate a lexis-oriented classification of this kind; nor have we been able to find relevant strategies of argu- mentation in the field of lexicography or corpus linguistics. Thus our maps of feeling for affect, judgement and appreciation have to be treated at this stage as hypotheses about the organisation of the relevant meanings — offered as a challenge to those concerned with developing appropriate reasoning, as a reference point for those with alternative classifications and as a tool for those who need something to manage the analysis of evaluation in discourse.
By way of classifying affect, we in fact drew on the following six factors, several of which are foregrounded in the grammar of English after Halliday and so we assumed of highly generalised relevance to the question of types of emotion.
Are the feelings popularly construed by the culture as positive good vibes that are enjoyable to experience or negative ones bad vibes that are better avoided? We are not concerned here with the value that a particular uncommon sense psychological framework might place on one or another emotion cf. Are the feelings realised as a surge of emotion involving some kind of embodied paralinguistic or extralinguistic manifestation, or more internally experienced as a kind of emotive state or ongoing mental process?
Grammatically this distinction is constructed as the opposition between behavioural eg She smiled at him versus mental eg She liked him or relational eg She felt happy with him processes. How are the feelings graded — towards the lower valued end of a scale of intensity or towards the higher valued end; or somewhere in between? Halliday —9 , but expect that most emotions offer lexicalisations that grade along a evenly clined scale cf.
Do the feelings involve intention rather than reaction , with respect to a stimulus that is irrealis rather than realis. Table 2. It involves the moods of feeling happy or sad, and the possibility of directing these feelings at a Trigger by liking or disliking it see Table 2. Sharing values in this area is critical to the formation of social networks family, friends, colleagues, etc. Social sanction on the other hand is more often codified in writing, as edicts, decrees, rules, regulations and laws about how to behave as sur- veilled by church and state — with penalties and punishments as levers against those not complying with the code.
Sharing values in this area underpins civic duty and religious observances. Illustrative realisations for social esteem are presented in Table 2. The range of meanings listed is not exhaustive, and the examples have not been graded along a high through median to low scale. As with affect, we can recognise positive and negative evaluations — traits we admire alongside those we criticise. It must also be stressed that we provide such a list of terms only as a gen- eral guide to the meanings which are at stake here.
When it comes to language use in context, it is often the case that a given lexical item will vary its attitudinal meaning according to that context. The list, therefore, should not be treated as a dictionary of the value of judgement which can be mechanically applied in a text analysis. Illustrative realisations for social sanction are presented in Table 2. In early work our terms for the major types of judgement were closer to these modal oppositions, as reflected in Figure 2.
Beginning with propositions, we can construct a series of realisations for both probability, usuality and capacity which begins with congruent realisations and pushes through metaphorical ones towards lexis which is clearly appraising in nature.
You should go. Illustrative realisations for appreciation are presented in Table 2. As with affect and judgement, we can recog- nise positive and negative evaluations — properties we value alongside those we do not. Alternatively, the appreciation framework might be interpreted metafunctionally — with reaction oriented to inter- personal significance, composition to textual organisation and valua- tion to ideational worth as summarised in Table 2.
Clearly there are strong links between the appreciation variable reaction and affect as outlined above , including derivationally related lexis. Nevertheless we think it is important to distinguish between construing the emotions someone feels affect and ascribing the power Table 2. But we consider it useful to distinguish between judgements of behaviour and evaluations of things.
Although our general framework for analysing attitude has stabilised over the years as we move from one register to another, we believe as noted above that there is a need to develop social semiotic princi- ples for classifying lexis which are not available to us at this time.
We are not sure whether these will emerge from corpus studies or from the development of reasoned argumentation or some combination of the two. In the meantime we are stuck with the fine tuning enabled by thesauri, dictionaries and manual text analysis as attitude is further explored.
For them to do that was silly. They see it as beautiful. Additional framing is explored in Niemeier and Dirven ; it may be that a more delicate exploration of frames will help interrogate the sub- categorisation of affect, judgement and appreciation suggested above. As we have already indicated, the source and target of evaluation are also criterial. Appreciation on the other hand targets things, whether concrete or abstract, material or semiotic.
With attitudinal lexis in general, however, the clause frames introduced above and the nature of the source and target of evaluation can be used to distinguish among affect, judgement and appreciation. His account of being stolen from his family by white authorities is more moving than this.
Although he says nothing explicit about his own feelings, they are plain to see: As Archie Roach got up to sing the words of the song Uncle Ernie had played on his gum leaf, he also indicated his anguish at being taken from his parents, and how he had gone on, not to the better life promised at the time by the white authorities, but to face discrimina- tion and destitution.
At first blush it might seem that analysing the evaluation invoked by ideational selections introduces an undesirable element of subjectivity into the analysis. On the other hand, avoiding invoked evaluation of this kind amounts to a suggestion that ideational meaning is selected without regard to the attitudes it engen- ders — a position we find untenable.
By a tactical reading we refer to a typically partial and interested reading, which aims to deploy a text for social purposes other than those it has naturalised; resistant readings oppose the reading position naturalised by the co-selection of meanings in a text, while compliant readings sub- scribe to it. Beyond this, when we suggest that a text naturalises a reading position we mean as far as evaluation is concerned that it will be fairly directive in the kinds of attitude it wants readers to share.
Beyond this the prosodic nature of the realisation of interpersonal meanings such as attitude means that inscriptions tend to colour more of a text than their local grammatical environment circum- scribes. The inscriptions act as sign-posts, in other words, telling us how to read the ideational selections that surround them. Manne , was common practice, and pub- licly defended as humane treatment in the best interests of the children themselves. A society of this kind has surely regarded its Indigenous peoples as less than human, perhaps incapable of the emotions Roach inscribes here.
And for us, a society which refuses to apologise publicly for behaviour of this kind continues to subscribe to a comparable racist stance. For another example of prosodic realisation and the interaction of inscription and invocation, consider the following text, from Indigenous art critic Eric Michaels. In , the new school headmaster Mr Terry Lewis brought considerable excitement to the Yuendumu community by his interest in and support of tra- ditional Warlpiri culture and language. The results were more spec- tacular than anyone envisaged.
Both European and Aboriginal residents of Yuendumu took considerable pleasure and pride in the achievement. Visitors to the community were equally enthusiastic, and word about these remarkable paintings began to spread. My own response was to see this accomplishment as a major one for contempo- rary international art as well as an achievement in indigenous culture. For me, these doors seemed to strike a chord with issues and images that were being negotiated in the art galleries of Sydney, Paris and New York.
By the time Michaels compares the doors with issues and images being negotiated in the art capitals of the world, there is no doubt about the positive appreciation his ideational selections are designed to invoke. Inscribed attitude, in other words, launches and subsequently reinforces a prosody which directs readers in their evaluation of non-attitudinal ideational material under its scope.
Complementing this, ideational meaning can be used not just to invite but to provoke an attitudinal response in readers. This is one func- tion of lexical metaphor. He does not. For they are feeling as vulnerable as a man who has already had his arm torn off by a lion, and sits in the corner holding his stump and waiting for the lion to finish eating and come for him again. This is something more than vulnerability.
It is injury and shock and fear and rage. And he does not know the carnage that is waiting for him if he calls an election. And he will be surprised. Somewhat less provocative, but still indicating that an evaluation is being invoked, is the use of non-core vocabulary that has in some sense lexicalised a circumstance of manner by infusing it into the core meaning of a word.
Simple intensification is also indicative, presumably because it grades a process and grading is an inherent feature of attitudinal vocabulary. We took the traditional lands and smashed the traditional way of life. We brought the diseases.
The alcohol. We committed the murders. We took the children from their mothers. We practised discrimination and exclusion. It was our ignorance and our prejudice. And our failure to imagine these things being done to us. With some noble exceptions, we failed to make the most basic human response and enter into their hearts and minds.
We failed to ask — how would I feel if this were done to me? Construing some action or event as contrary to expectation is one such mechanism. Consider by way of example the following, This is another book by an American who writes about the pleasures and pains of owning a house in France. Barry, however, is something of an exception because, unlike other authors in this genre, she does not actually live in her house in France.
The ideational content of itself might, of course, have led the reader to this same neg- ative viewpoint. The various strategies for inscribing and invoking attitude introduced above are outlined in Figure 2. Recognition of inscribed and invoked attitude means that we might allow for double codings of the borderline categories introduced in Figure 2. Where players are explicitly judged in a role, an invoked appreciation of their accomplishments might be recognised; simi- larly, where an activity is explicitly appreciated as a thing, a judge- ment of whoever accomplished it might be invoked see Table 2.
This places swearing beyond the scope of our study, since it involves non-gradable lexis. And that was real absolute lunacy, doing that. You know, but there was so much work. In some texts they can be read as ampli- fying attendant inscriptions; so we could in principle treat my God as intensifying had a ball above if we want to include it in our analysis.
Attitude: Ways of Feeling 69 In other texts it is harder to say precisely which kind of attitude is being construed: Fucken Hell man, who the hell told you I liked doing this kind of shit. On Saturday I saw Brian and Brendon and his Girlfriend at Waterloo, I was wait- ing to catch the bloody bus, anyway they started talking to me so that killed alot of time. Anyway I had to go to the Laundromat Yesterday and I saw my ex-boyfriend man he looks fucken ugly god knows what I went out with him, he looks like a fucken dickhead … [Martin c: —23] Perhaps in general we should simply treat expletives, related euphemisms gosh, darn, etc.
Jordens however makes the point that in a specific register, particular types of swearing and other exclamations may be associated with particular types of attitude — for example oh, man, ohhhh, whoa, oh heavens, oh god, oh crikey and oh shit with insecurity in his interviews with patients under treatment for colonic cancer.
Interjections bring us to the borders of what is normally considered language, comprised as they are of apparently residual protolanguage material as Halliday and Painter , would describe it. As work on interpersonal meaning evolves, the traditional distinction between language and paralanguage certainly needs to be reconsidered — a step we will not be pursuing here. But work on paralanguage gesture, facial expression, laughter, voice quality, loudness, etc.
The realisation of attitude in images and their interaction with verbal text is explored in Martin a. Was on the job. Read for a few seconds, lifted his face to the fluorescent light. You got to rewrite this. Here, sit down. They say reporters can be made out of anything.
Last night the Pine Eye Planning Commission voted by a large margin to revise earlier recommendations for amendments to the municipal zoning code that would increase the minimum plot size of residential properties in all but downtown areas to seven acres.
Too long. Way, way, way too long. No human interest. No quotes. Short sentences. Break it up. Look at this, look at this. Move it up. Quoyle leaned close, stared, fidgeted, under- stood nothing. The new law limits minimum residential property sizes to seven acres. Get the idea? What you want in the lead? Here, see what you do. Put some spin on it. He was afraid of all but twelve or fifteen verbs. Had a fatal flair for the passive. How the hell can you hand a governor?
Line them up against the wall! For judgement and apprecia- tion, it is also useful to note the source of the attitude who is judging or appreciating and what is being appraised who is being judged and what is being appreciated. Normally we interpret speakers and writers as the source of evaluations, unless attitude is projected as the speech or thoughts of an additional appraiser.
Affect can be coded in a framework of this kind by treating the emoter as appraiser, and the trigger of the emotion, if recoverable, as appraised. This makes sense if we interpret the appraiser as the person who is feeling something whether emoting, judging or appreciating , and the appraised as the person, thing or activity that is being reacted to.
This of course is stretching the everyday meaning of the terms appraiser and appraised, something we have learned to live with to standardise coding and which we feel a technical redefinition of the terms affords; analysts who find this unhelpful may prefer to code affect separately from judgement and appreciation using the terms emoter and trigger as introduced above. As we can see, evaluation in this phase of discourse focuses on what news is in terms of getting it right or wrong as far as the field of journal- ism is concerned: wrong, too long, confused, stale, not very snappy, no style right, short, spin For this field we have taken the term news as positive appreciation, since it is used to refer to newsworthy information that is valuable enough to print.
On these grounds it seems appropriate to include pejorative names as inscrip- tions of attitude. The term flair normally collocates with positive judgements a natural abil- ity to do something well , and in this context positions readers to sympathise with Quoyle not simply as stupid but as an unfortunate victim of his own consuming predispositions.
Attitude: Ways of Feeling 75 Table 2. The main function of the tokens is to extend the negative prosodies of appreciation bad copy and judgement incompetent reporter inscribed by the explicitly evaluative items, as outlined in Table 2. Humour, broadly speaking, clearly has a role to play. Partridge, for example, mocks Quoyle by reading his lead aloud in a high-pitched singsong. For his part, Quoyle is scared of verbs, fatally attracted to the passive and sentenced to face the firing squad for his troubles — a life-threatening scenario we read as amusing as too far over the top to be taken literally.
Ask George Blair-West. At last, you are in dreamland. My Goddess of Laughter, the Princess-of-all- that-is-Good. Your skin so smooth and soft. The squeals of sheer and utter joy that you unleashed only a few hours ago echo in my mind. I had to come and look at you.
It is all I can do not to reach out and kiss you. You cried so hard after we put you down. My heart hurt. It was all I could do not to rush to your side. And then you screamed your cry. I had to come to your door. You had no idea, but I was only feet away. Wanting to hold you in my arms. You would have settled within seconds — but it would have been for my benefit, not yours. It must have been scary, imprisoned by those hard white bars.
You felt all alone. It was black with darkness. You probably thought we had left you for- ever. What a scary word. Do you remember? Last night I came to you. She knew. You gave me that big hug. You were so relieved to see me. I felt like a white knight on a shining charger. But, prob- ably like every man who thinks he is Sir Lancelot, I soon realised I could not save you. I had to go, you see. And you cried for 30 minutes more because I had taught you that this would make me come to you.
Tonight you settled after 35 minutes. If it were not for me you might have only taken 15 minutes tonight. As Mummy says, we know you are okay because you were laughing when you went to bed. It was only when we shut the door and left you that the fear must have closed in. Mind you, that was how this problem started. I guess having us sit up with you and rocking you to sleep for four nights in a row threw you off your game, huh?
Now you have finally settled. You sleep the sleep of the cotton-soft breath. After a while you will realise that we can leave you and come back again. Such complicated words. You probably do not even know you are 18 months! I wish I could explain. You know, there are times when you can feel pretty helpless as a big person. I guess this is part of the training for getting through life. So you, and I, have to suffer for a little longer.
Dream sweetly. The article contains some appreciation, but very little judgement; overwhelmingly it focusses on the emotions of father and child. This is an interesting play of attitude for part of a magazine dedicated to constructing norms for good and bad parenting.
Compared with Proulx, there is very little invoked attitude since so much is explicitly inscribed. Undercutting this is his suspicion that this text has been written by a woman, for women — with this particular torrent of emo- tions a thoroughly feminine concoction.
Whether a community of snaggy dads exists that would actually bond with this portrayal of fatherhood is an interesting question. My dear Lord Peter, I feel sure you will be anxious to hear, at the earliest possible moment how things are going, and though I have only been here one day, I really think I have not done so badly, all things considered!
My train got in quite late on Monday night, after a most dreary journey, with a lugubrious wait at Preston, though thanks to your kindness in insisting that I should travel First-class, I was not really at all tired! Nobody can realise what a great difference these extra comforts make, especially when one is getting on in years, and after the uncomfortable travelling which I had to endure in my days of poverty, I feel that I am living in almost sinful luxury!
The carriage was well heated — indeed, too much so and I should have liked the window down, but that there was a very fat business man, muffled to the eyes in coats and woolly waistcoats who strongly objected to fresh air! I had no difficulty in getting a comfortable room at the Station Hotel, late as it was. In the old days, an unmarried woman arriving alone at midnight with a suitcase would hardly have been considered respectable — what a wonderful dif- ference one finds today!
Yesterday morning, of course, my first object was to find a suitable boarding- house, in accordance with your instructions, and I was fortunate enough to hit upon this house at the second attempt. It is very well run and refined, and there are three elderly ladies who are permanent boarders here, and are well up in all the GOSSIP of the town, so that nothing could be more advantageous for our purpose!
Such a beau- tiful old place, I said, and did anybody live there? Of course I did not blurt this out all at once — I waited till they had told me of the many quaint spots in the district that would interest an artist! My dear Lord Peter, what I do not know now about the abandoned wickedness of Mrs. But what was more to the point is that she told me the name of Mrs.
Wrayburn, except for the servants, and a housekeeper. When I heard that Mrs. Wrayburn was so old, and paralysed and frail, I said was it not very dangerous that Miss Booth should be the only attendant, but Mrs. Pegler said the house- keeper was a most trustworthy woman who had been with Mrs.
Wrayburn for many years, and was quite capable of looking after her any time when Miss Booth was out. So it appears that Miss Booth does go out sometimes! I managed to extract quite a good description of her, so if I should happen to meet her, I daresay I shall be smart enough to recognise her! Normal font is used for just nine inscriptions.
Most sincerely yours, That leaves just five inscriptions in normal font. As with the small caps, there seems to be no pattern to these omissions. I had no difficulty in getting a comfortable room …. In this connection Sayers italicises several pieces of pertinent information, only one phrase of which is intensified all alone : the name of Mrs.
Such a beauti- ful old place, I said, and did anybody live there? Overall the text develops attitudinally, negotiating a complex of per- sonal and professional understandings between Climpson and Whimsey as it unfolds. The urgency of Phases 1 and 6 tunes us in to the profes- sional zeal with which Climpson enacts an unusual job for a woman early on in the twentieth century.
Phases 2 and 3 negotiate a more per- sonal relationship, as Climpson shares her attitudes to changing times — her ability to travel first-class thanks to Whimsey , and her new-found independence in post-Victorian times. Of note in passing is the near absence of inscribed affect in italics just I am grateful in a text that is otherwise so packed with feeling.
In the next chapter we explore the meanings by which the authorial voice is positioned with respect to these attitudinal assessments. Jim originally read poor as affectual sympathy; but the co-text in fact naturalises an experiential reading people too poor to afford residential property as a result of the new zoning law. Attitude: Ways of Feeling 91 8.
Treated as inscription since newsworthiness is a positive attribute of certain information in journalism. The chapter provides a framework for characterising the different possibilities for this stance- taking which are made available by the language, for investigating the rhetorical effects associated with these various positionings, and for exploring what is at stake when one stance is chosen over another. Our approach locates us in a tradition in which all utterances are seen as in some way stanced or attitudinal.
As Voloshinov states, The actual reality of language-speech is not the abstract system of linguistic forms, not the isolated monologic utterance, and not the psychological act of its implementation, but the social event of verbal interaction implemented in an utterance or utterances. Thus, verbal interaction is the basic reality of language.
A book, i. Thus the printed verbal performance engages, as it were, in ideological colloquy of a large scale: it responds to something, affirms something, anticipates possi- ble responses and objections, seeks support, and so on. We are interested in whether they present themselves as standing with, as standing against, as undecided, or as neutral with respect to these other speakers and their value positions.
Thus we are interested in whether the value position is presented as one which can be taken for granted for this particular audience, as one which is in some way novel, problematic or contentious, or as one which is likely to be questioned, resisted or rejected.
The framework we outline, then, is directed towards providing a systematic account of how such positionings are achieved linguistically. As already indicated in the opening chapter, this selection includes wordings which have traditionally been treated under such headings as modality, polarity, evidentiality, intensification, attribution, concession, and consequentiality.
In operating with such lexically and grammatically diverse groupings, we follow others who have had a similar semantic or rhetorical orienta- tion. Thus declarations of attitude are dialogically directed towards aligning the addressee into a community of shared value and belief. By way of a brief introductory illustration of what is at stake here interpersonally, we consider the following short extract taken from a radio interview with the then Australian Prime Minister, John Howard.
The host of a current affairs program is asking Mr Howard how he views the behaviour of Australian banks in raising their fees and charges soon after they had reported earning record profits. Here there are two value positions being advanced — 1 a view which is positively disposed towards the fact that banks make high profits and 2 a view which is negatively disposed to one particular instance of high profit taking, that resulting from this recent increase in fees.
In his manner of formulating the proposition that, in general terms, it is right and proper for banks to make high profits, the speaker anticipates no objections to, or questioning of, such a viewpoint and therefore presents both himself and the envisaged listener as unprob- lematically aligned into this particular value position. These take the form of devices by which the proposition that the banks are acting immorally is construed as currently subject to contestation and debate there is an argument though, is there … and one which the speaker hesitates to align with categorically ie … have been a bit greedy rather than simply have been greedy, and … are bordering on the unreasonable rather than simply are unreasonable.
Thus, in this case, there is no clear-cut aligning of either the speaker or the addressee into an anti-bank community of shared value, even while the anti-bank viewpoint is being advanced. Simultaneously the speaker presents himself as potentially in solidarity with both those who hold this negative view of the banks and those who would reject it, on the basis that he recognises the validity of both viewpoints. In this section we consider those meanings which we assign to the category of engagement, turning to the resources of graduation in section 3.
In sections devoted to individual sub-types of engagement and graduation we first identify the relevant locutions, explore their dialogistic functional- ity and then, where appropriate, consider potential effects with respect to putative audience construal, alignment and solidarity, as discussed above.
As indicated, we include within the category of engagement those meanings which in various ways construe for the text a heteroglossic backdrop of prior utterances, alternative viewpoints and anticipated responses. We begin by outlining the taxonomy within which we locate the various engagement meanings. The taxonomy is directed towards identifying the particular dialogistic positioning associated with given meanings and towards describing what is at stake when one meanings rather than another is employed.
But such a characterisation does not take into the account the dialogis- tic functionality of such formulations, attending only to the issue of truth conditions. Once we hold the view that all verbal communication occurs against a heteroglossic backdrop of other voices and alternative viewpoints a rather different picture emerges. The various overtly dialogistic resources we have just outlined all recognise, and engage with, that dialogistic background in some way.
Bare assertions obviously contrast with these heteroglossic options in not overtly referencing other voices or recognising alternative positions. Such a monoglossic style is demonstrated by the following extract, Two years on, the British government has betrayed the most fundamental responsibility that any government assumes — the duty to protect the rule of law.
It is a collusion in an international experiment in inhumanity, which is being repeated and expanded around the world. There is the argument though that the banks have been greedy. In my view the banks have been greedy. Callers to talkback radio see the banks as being greedy.
The chairman of the consumers association has stated that the banks are being greedy. There can be no denying the banks have been greedy. Everyone knows the banks are greedy. See, for example, Table 3. It must be acknowledged, however, that the precise effects as to dialogistic positioning associated with the use of bare assertions monoglossing are complex. There is, in fact, a set of potential effects where the precise nature of positioning will be determined by a range of factors. These include the communicative objectives being pursued by the text as a whole for example, whether it argues, explains, narrates, recounts, records, etc.
One key distinction within monoglossic assertions turns on whether the disposition of the text is such that the proposition is presented as taken-for-granted or whether, alternatively, it is presented as currently at issue or up for discussion.
There are various textual arrangements by which taken-for-grantedness can be construed. This taken-for-grantedness is exemplified in the following extract. Alternatively, the disposition of the text may be such that the categorical, monoglossically asserted proposition is presented as very much in the spotlight — as very much a focal point for discussion and argumentation. Such a disposition is demonstrated in the following extract taken from an editorial in The Sun newspaper concerned with the case of Maxine Carr, the partner of Ian Huntley who notoriously mur- dered two British schoolgirls in The editorial was written after it was announced that, having served a prison term for obstructing police inquiries, Maxine Carr was to be given a new identity and her anonymity was to be protected by law.
This followed a campaign of hatred towards the woman by the tabloid press and after she had received numerous death threats while in jail. Why does Carr gets this unique protection, which is not justified by any facts laid before the court? She is just a common criminal who lied to give her murdering boyfriend an alibi. What if she gets a job at a school? What if she chooses to live with another Svengali-like criminal? But the media cannot tell you anything about Carr from now on. The text might even be read as anticipating that the reader may hold to a diametrically opposed posi- tion, and hence will need to be won over, although this reading is less plausible given the lack of indicators elsewhere in the text that the writer anticipates objections or resistance by the reader to the arguments being advanced.
The distinction turns on the degree to which an utterance, by dint of one or more of these locutions, actively makes allowances for dialogically alternative positions and voices dialogic expansion , or alternatively, acts to challenge, fend off or restrict the scope of such dialogic contraction. Since this is a distinction not elsewhere identified in the literature we begin by briefly demonstrating it. Consider the following two contrastive text extracts by way of exemplification.
He shows that the mafia began in the 19th century as armed bands protecting the interests of the absentee landlords who owned most of Sicily. This follows from the fact that they employ the grammar of reported speech. But there is more at stake here than the simple multiplying of voices. The first extract [3. See, for example, Hunston or Caldas- Coulthard By indicating in this way a heightened invest- ment by the author and by co-opting some authoritative second party to the current rhetorical cause, such formulations set themselves against, or at least fend off, actual or potential contrary positions.
Thus in the above instance, show and demonstrate are employed as the textual voice sets itself against the discredited alternative view of the Mafia as Robin Hood types. Such wordings, then, can be construed as dialogically contractive — they close down the space for dialogic alternatives. The second text [3. Here the textual voice distances itself from the proposition framed by claim, representing it as, if not doubtful, then as still open to question.
The effect is to invite or at least entertain dialogic alternatives and thereby to lower the interpersonal cost for any who would advance such an alternative. Accordingly, such distancing formulations can be seen as dialogi- cally expansive, as opening up the dialogic space for alternative positions.
It must be stressed that it is not proposed that the verb to claim neces- sarily has this function in all cases. The rhetorical potential of such a word, for example, may vary systematically under the influence of dif- ferent co-textual conditions, and across registers, genres and discourse domains.
Our concern is, in fact, not specifically with to claim as a lex- eme but with the dialogistic positioning exemplified in the above text extract — the dialogistic position which we have labelled distancing. Figure 3. The same point applies in all the exemplifications of dialogistic resources which follow.
In this distinction, then, between modes of attribution which endorse the proposition in this way and those which distance the authorial voice from the proposition, we see this fundamental contrast between dialogic contraction and expansion. The engagement system as outlined to this point is set out in Figure 3.
We will begin by exploring formulations which, are in our terms, dialogically expansive. The authorial voice entertains those dialogic alternatives. Consider by way of illustration, the use of the modal adjunct probably in the following extract: [3. What would you do? In fact it was probably the most imma- ture, irresponsible, disgraceful and misleading address ever given by a British Prime Minister. It was all bluster, all bluff.
The autho- rial voice presents itself as invested in this proposition while at the same time acknowledging that the value position being advanced is contingent and hence but one of a number of potential dialogistic alter- natives.
In this, then, we see that the primary functionality of the modal is dialogistic. It acts to acknowledge a heteroglossic backdrop for the proposition by presenting it as potentially at odds with some dialo- gistic alternative. Interestingly, this sense that the writer is highly invested in the propo- sition would have been substantially maintained even had low intensity modalising options been employed. Thus, In fact this was possibly the most immature, irresponsible, disgraceful and misleading address ever given by a British Prime Minister.
In fact it may have been the most immature, irresponsible, disgraceful and misleading address ever given by a British Prime Minister. This points to the role of the co-text in conditioning the meanings which are conveyed by such locutions. Here the assertiveness of the in fact, the use of the superlative most and the vigour of the negative evaluation all act to indicate a strong investment in the proposition by the writer which is not greatly moderated by the use of low-intensity modal forms such as possibly and may.
For further discussion of the vari- ability of the meanings of such modals under co-textual conditioning, see Hunston in press. For example, [3. We observe such a context in the following extracts: [3. But Chippendale is only half the story. A pair of Moroccan painted doors — probably 18th century — were evocative things in their own right and indicate the eclectic nature of this collection. But before humankind came on the scene, mass extinctions may have been caused by major changes in sea level or disruptions in the food chain.
In all of these instances the proposition is grounded in an explicit subjectivity and is thereby construed as but one position among a range of alternative positions. They construe a heteroglossic backdrop for the text in which the particular point-of-view is actually or potentially in tension with dialogistic alter- natives. By this, they project for the text an audience which is poten- tially divided over the issue at stake and hence one which may not universally share the value position being referenced.
The degree to which values of entertain function in this way to signal authorial anticipation that the proposition may be problematic for the intended addressee will vary under certain co-textual conditionings. This functionality is most likely to be in operation where the value posi- tion is one which obviously relates to some ideologically-significant, established axiological formation eg The sad aspect of all this is that by giving support to this invasion Blair will be destroying the UN and I believe will have betrayed the British people.
Consider by way of example the following: [3. As a nurse with more than 50 years experience including 10 years caring for the terminally ill I feel it appropriate to respond. It has been my privilege to have cared for possibly several hundred termi- nally ill patients. Accordingly, the formu- lation is less likely to be interpreted as anticipating the possibility of some dissent over this viewpoint on the part of those addressed and is more likely to be interpreted as a sign by the writer that this is not meant to be taken as a precise figure and accordingly that she herself might have set the figure slightly higher or slightly lower.
As indicated above, the grammar of entertain is more diverse than this. For example: [3. That mismatch seems worse than it was ten years ago. To present a proposition as surmised is obviously to present it as but one proposition among a range of potential alternatives and thereby to open up dialogic space for any such alternatives.
Despite this fundamental difference, deontic modals still construe the communicative setting as heteroglossic and open up the dialogic space to alternatives. The contrast is between the imperative Turn out the lights before you leave and the modal formulation You must turn out the lights before you leave.
The imperative is monoglossic in that it neither refer- ences, nor allows for the possibility of, alternative actions. The modal, in contrast, explicitly grounds the demand in the subjectivity of the speaker — as an assessment by the speaker of obligation rather than as a command.
We are concerned, therefore, with the framing of propositions by means of communicative process verbs eg Mr. Mandela said the Group of Eight nations have a duty to help battle the scourge of AIDS , or verbs which reference mental processes such as believe and suspect, eg Dawkins believes that religion is not an adaptive evolutionary vestige, but in fact a cultural virus.
It is said that he lied about his age as he grew older … and the instance discussed previously, there is an argument that. This is the domain of reporting verbs such as say, report, state, declare, announce, believe and think. This, however, is a separate issue which needs to be dealt with elsewhere in the analysis. We will discuss this issue further below when considering the consequences for addresser—addressee rapport of attribution. This aspect of acknowledgement has been widely attended to in the extensive literature on reported speech and citation, especially as it operates within academic discourse.
But equally importantly, such formulations are dialogic for the same reasons that values of entertain are dialogic — they ground the view- point conveyed by the proposition in an explicit subjectivity thereby signalling that it is individual and contingent and therefore but one of a range of possible dialogic options.
In this sense they are anticipatorily as opposed to retrospectively dialogistic, making space in the ongoing dialog for those who might hold alternative views. We would put this in slightly different terms, since values of acknowledge also potentially have this rhetorical effect, and observe, rather, that claim acts to mark explicitly the internal authorial voice as separate from the cited, external voice.
We demonstrate both this func- tionality of values of distancing and how they are dialogistically differ- ent from values of acknowledge by means of the extract which we considered briefly above in section 3. We repeat it here for ease of ref- erence and indicate instances of both acknowledge and distance. His attack came as the Aboriginal women involved in the case demanded [acknowledge] a female minister exam- ine the religious beliefs they claim [distance] are inherent in their fight against a bridge to the island near Goolwa in South Australia.
His attack came as the Aboriginal women involved in the case demanded [acknowledge] a female minister examine the religious beliefs which they say [acknowledge] are inherent in their fight against a bridge to the island near Goolwa in South Australia.
Distancing formulations are dialogistically expansive on the same basis as acknowledgements. They explicitly ground the proposition in an individualised, contingent subjectivity, that of some external source. They go somewhat further than acknowledgements in that, in presenting the authorial voice as explicitly declining to take responsi- bility for the proposition, they maximise the space for dialogistic alternatives.
For a comprehensive analysis of the rhetorical effects of these meanings in context it is necessary to do more than simply classify them as either acknowledging or distancing. The very extensive literature on citation, referencing and intertextuality in academic discourse attends to this domain of enquiry. We confine ourselves to just a couple of key questions — those which relate most directly to our central concerns with alignment and solidarity. To the degree that the reader interprets the writer in such instances as having nothing invested in the position being advanced in the reported material neither acting to advance it or to undermine it , such acknowledgements allow the writer to remain aloof from any relationships of either alignment or disalignment.
Of course, there are all man- ner of ways in which such texts may indirectly indicate that the writer either supports or is opposed to the attributed value position. In which case, greater to lesser degrees of alignment either for or against the value position will be indicated and the text may be interpreted as more or less forthrightly aligning the reader into a particular value position.
Such alignment-neutral attributions, however, are in the minority. It is more typical, particularly in argumentative texts such as media commentaries, political speeches or academic articles, for attribution to be much more obviously implicated in issues of alignment and solidar- ity. For example: There were no slip-ups in the powerful speech — finally silencing the critics who falsely claim Bush is no more than a Texas cattle-rancher.
Rather, he has com- pellingly argued that those so-called New Economists were a major contribu- tor to the excesses of the bubble, as detailed here last week. Other more indirect methodologies are also available by which it is possible for attributed material to be implicated in the alignment strate- gies at work in the text. These are mechanism by which the reader is covertly positioned to regard the attributed material as either highly credible and warrantable, or alternatively, as dubious and unreliable.
High credibility can be implied via the use of sources who have high status in the field for example, Mr. Mandela said the Group of Eight nations have a duty to help battle the scourge of AIDS or, as Hood has observed, via the assembling of a multiplicity of sources in support of the attributed material. Only a few scientists believe it will. The system of engagement focussing on heteroglossic resources as outlined to this point is set out in Figure 3.
These are meanings which, even while they construe a dialogistic backdrop for the text of other voices and other value positions, are directed towards excluding certain dialogic alternatives from any subsequent communicative inter- action or at least towards constraining the scope of these alternatives in the colloquy as it henceforth unfolds.
These contractive meanings fall into two broad categories. We consider each of these options in turn. Under disclaim we cover those formulations by which some prior utterance or some alternative position is invoked so as to be directly rejected, replaced or held to be unsustainable.
Obviously to deny or reject a position is maximally contractive in that, while the alternative position has been recognised, it is held not to apply. We distinguish two sub-types within this disclaim category. Thus in these dialogistic terms, the negative is not the simple logical opposite of the positive, since the negative necessarily carries with it the positive, while the positive does not recip- rocally carry the negative, or at least not typically.
But sometimes you can have too much of a good thing. And a man whose table diet consists of double cheese- burgers and chips can end up looking like a tub of lard. But how about some lean meat, wholemeal bread and jacket potatoes? We only have the space here to consider a couple of instances of this variability. Consider the following extract by way of example, [3.
May I repeat my assurances that this is not the case. Anthrax represents a real threat to our armed forces and we seek to protect our troops through detection sys- tems, individual physical protection and medical countermeasures immuni- sation and antibiotics. Dave's production company, Worldwide Pants, owns the copyright to Late Show episodes.
They don't mind if fans trade segments among themselves. I get video requests every few days, and have helped people with segments many times, at no charge. I have hours on tape from 6, hours of episodes. I almost never recorded musical acts.
I have digital captures of Acts 1 and 2 from a fair number of the more-recent episodes. Unfortunately, availability of direct downloads of episodes from the Late Show site on cbs. I'll be happy to check my Late Night and Late Show episode logs to get you the date and episode number, and make you a video if I can, but I will not give you contact information for other fans. Update, Nov. I haven't been able to figure out what's wrong.
There are cables, adaptors and connectors, and then the software has to be configured just right. I haven't figured out what's wrong. Dave's retirement announcement. DaveCon Tony Mendez Show promo. DaveCon on the Tony Mendez Show. Alan Kalter's Environmental Fund. Election Day skit takes a bad turn. Osama bin Laden voice-over. Pmart ad. Snow Day. Working for a Tyrannical, Evil Bastard. The Hi Ho babes put away the Late Show bear.
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Swift also has merchandise up for sale for her album "Speak Now," which is still due for a re-record. Still, it's not the first time "" merch has sparked album speculation. Last summer, Swift released a line of merchandise dubbed "Just a Summer Thing" that featured the same sky-blue color as the album and read "EST.
Fans were all but convinced " Taylor's Version " would arrive soon Taylor Swift fires back at Damon Albarn's claim she doesn't write her songs: 'Completely false'. After announcing that "Red" would be her next re-rerecorded album, Swift delivered a curveball to fans in September with the surprise release of "Wildest Dreams Taylor's Version ," off of " A love letter to 'Lover': Why we adore Taylor Swift's lost triumph. She also used a TikTok trend as an opportunity to promote the song, encouraging fans to use the audio of "Wildest Dreams Taylor's Version " in their videos.
It just goes to show that, with Swift, perhaps it's best to expect the unexpected. It's me, Taylor Swift's scarf. Since , she has placed 43 songs in the Top 40 of Billboard's Hot pop chart as the lead performer, more than any other artist in that period. She's had 31 Top 40 country singles, including thirteen No. Rolling Stone writes that the scale and scope of Swift's success is startling. But she's still Taylor Swift, which means she's dreaming biggger and oversharing louder than anyone else in the game.
Billboard reviewer Jem Aswad says that if Swift's new single "Shake It Off" was her official breakup letter to country music, is the coming-out party, "because it makes Red sound like Reba McEntire. The guitars, when they're there at all, deliver mostly texture; an acoustic is audible on just one song. The mandolins and violins were left back in Nashville, and there might not be a single live drum on the album. But Martin and other key collaborators including Shellback, Ryan Tedder and fun.
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