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The program quiz encourages attentiveness and tests information retention. True 2. False; Britain won the wars and France had to turn over her lands to the victor. True 4. True 5. False; Most of the problems in the colonies at that time seemed to focus on Boston.
Blackline Master 3, Vocabulary Activity 1. Duties, Tariffs 2. Navigation Acts 3. New England Confederation 4. Intolerable, Coercive 5. I 6. J 2. C 7. E 3. F 8. D 4. G 9. H 5. A J Blackline Master 8, Video Quiz 1. False; The Quartering Act required colonists to provide food and shelter for British troops.
True 3. False; A Writ of Assistance allowed British troops to search for evidence against tax evaders. But Independence didn't come easily; it took many years of hard and bloody fighting to win it. But what had happened to drive the colonies into a violent war against, what was back then, the world's most powerful nation? In order to find out, let us go back in time to the year , 12 years before the Revolutionary War began.
France was the loser and was forced to hand over nearly all her American territory to Great Britain. In order to prevent bloodshed, France had tried to keep settlers out of the Indian hunting lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
After Great Britain took control of the region, the king did not want to fight another war in North America, so he forbid colonial settlement on the western lands. The king's proclamation angered many colonists, especially along the western frontier, who wanted to use the Indian lands for their own purposes.
They believed that a king who ruled from far across the ocean couldn't possibly understand the colonist's needs and had no right to limit where they settled. That was how the troubles in the colonies began; but there were many more soon to come. The Sugar Act Up until , Britain hadn't interfered much with the way her colonies were run. But the British government had gone deeply in debt fighting France and it desperately needed money, so it was decided that the colonies had to help pay for their own defense.
To raise this money, parliament made a new law called the Sugar Act. It required payment of a taraiff on imported items such as molasses, sugar, wine, and coffee. Tariffs were supposed to be used to regulate trade. However, some Americans realized that the tariffs imposed by the Sugar Act were just a thinly disguised way of getting them to pay new taxes.
But they also enacted a new law called the Stamp Act. It required them to pay for tax stamps like this one, that were put on paper goods such as almanacs, newspapers, and official documents. But the Stamp Act ended up causing even more trouble than the Sugar Act; not only because the taxes on paper goods were high, but also because taxation had once again been enacted without colonial representation in Parliament. The Stamp Act really made people mad. It caused riots in colonial port cities and a few government buildings were even destroyed.
John Adams of Boston called for representatives from each colony to meet and come up with a plan for resisting unfair taxation. In the end, only nine colonies participated, but what came to be called the Stamp Act Congres was a turning point in the movement toward independence; because the colonies discovered they had much greater strength when they acted as a group rather than separately. The Stamp Act was repealed the next year: But the government did not want to appear weak and so before that law was repealed the king approved a new law called the 11 Declaratory Act.
The purpose of this act was to make it clear to the colonists that the British government had the right to tax them as they saw fit and the fact that the colonists were not allowed to have representation in parliament did not change things at all. The Quartering Act Even before the Declaratory Act was approved, parliament had already passed another law intended to save the government money. It was called the Quartering Act and required colonial towns to provide shelter and supplies for the British troops in their localities.
This was an unpopular law as well, and when the colony of New York tried to resist paying for the soldier's upkeep, the British government shut down their legislature. In response, angry merchants in colonial ports boycotted, that is, refused to buy, British goods until the Quartering Act was changed.
These laws created indirect taxes called duties on imported items including tea, glass, lead, paint, and paper. The following year, to make sure the new laws were enforced, Britain sent a fleet of ships carrying two regiments of troops to occupy Boston.
The government provided its troops with special documents called Writs of Assistance authorizing them to carry out searches to find tax cheaters. Of course the government's actions just made the Americans even madder. So, once again, the colonies exerted economic pressure on the British by boycotting their goods. The boycott was mostly successful because 12 by , all the Townshend duties on imported goods, except the one on tea, had been revoked.
Even so, in March of that year, five colonists died in Boston when an unruly crowd protesting against taxation was fired upon by frightened British troops. The Committees of Correspondence Starting in , patriots from across the far-flung colonies began to organize Committes of Correspondence to increase communication between them. Through their letters, the Committees of Correspondence were able to share new ideas about government, law, and how to deal with threats to American liberty and they played an important role in uniting the colonies as they moved ever closer to revolution.
The Boston Tea Party One of the biggest moves towards revolution was taken in , and it was all about tea and taxes. Back then, tea was everyone's favorite nonalcoholic drink and people drank quite a lot of it. But because it was still being taxed, many merchants smuggled tea into the colonies from Holland.
In the meantime, British tea piled up unsold in warehouses and taxes remained uncollected. So the government decided to lure the colonists into buying British tea by selling it at a lower price than the Dutch. Patriots led by Sam Adams saw the plan as a trick, a round about way of getting them to agree to a tax they didn't believe in.
So when ships carrying British tea arrived in Boston, they were boarded by patriots, some thinly disguised as Mohawk Indians, who dumped the expensive cargo into the harbor, while crowds on the shore looked-on in startled amazement. The Intolerable Acts The Government quickly passed laws intended to punish the Massachusetts Bay colony and to force its citizens into obedience. In America, these laws came to be known as the Intolerable Acts because they made living in Massachusetts extremely difficult.
As a result of the Intolerable Acts, extra troops were sent to the colony to maintain order. Boston's harbor was shut down. Trade suffered badly and the Massachusetts legislature was suspended; disrupting the colony's government. Immediately, Committees of Correspondence sent off letters to the other colonies describing what had happened in Boston.
They warned of what might happen if Britain suspended other colonial legislatures and suggested that representatives from every colony meet to find ways of resisting the Intolerable Acts. After a little over two weeks of debate, the Continental Congress, hoping to put economic pressure on Britain, requested the colonists to stop sending them exports until a new way of preserving American liberties could be found.
Nevertheless, the actions of the Continental Congress were unmistakably those of a real government. As a matter of fact, Congress even advised that the colonies should start preparing their citizens for the possibility of war. Conclusion As we have just seen, a long series of events starting with the closing of the west to colonial settlement in and ending with the Intolerable Acts and the First Continental Congress in had taken the American colonies to the brink of war with Britain.
Clearly many colonists disliked being told what to do, disliked being expected to obey without a word of disagreement, and hated being taxed without being allowed to have representation in parliament. Beyond that, there were other factors at work because by , one hundred sixty seven years had passed since the founding of the first English colony at Jamestown, Virginia. Over such a long period of time the majority of colonists had developed deep connections with the land and people of America.
As this happened, their patriotism slowly shifted away from far-off Britain to the familiar colonies in which they lived: And it was all of these things that helped set the stage for the birth of the new American nation. True or False? The Quartering Act put a 25 cent tax on every pound of tea.
The Proclamation of forbid colonial settlement west of the Appalachians. Refusing to buy certain goods for political reasons is called a boycott. A Writ of Assistance was a special tax on paper. After , the English colonists in America were forbidden to settle on the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
In the s, Britain had to turn over almost all of what is today Canada to France because they lost the French and Indian Wars. Tariffs are special taxes used to regulate trade. In the s, American colonists were taxed repeatedly without being allowed to have representation in Britain's Parliament. In the s and 70s, the people of Boston were probably the least troublesome of any in Britain's colonies. American territory.
Great Britain The nation formed when the kingboycott A refusal to buy certain goods for politi- dom of Scotland joined up with the kingdom of cal reasons. England and Wales in Coercive Acts The same as the Intolerable Acts. Holland The same as The Netherlands. A small low-lying European country east of England. Great Britain; sought to punish the colony of Massachusetts Bay for the destruction caused by colony An overseas possession or territory ruled the Boston Tea Party.
Jamestown The first English colony in America. Committees of Correspondence Committees Founded along the James River in Virginia in the organized by towns, colonies, and counties before year They employed written letters to share ideas and infor- legislature A group assembled for the purpose of mation about colonial rights and struggles and making laws. Loyalists Americans who stayed loyal to Great Britain. Declaratory Act Issued in , this act was intended to make it clear to the colonies that New England Confederation An alliance formed Britain's power over them was not to be ques- in between the colonies of Massachusetts, tioned.
It was disbanded in Boycotts are effective Quartering Act A law enacted in that because they can exert considerable economic required colonial communities to provide food pressure. First Continental Congress A meeting of the Stamp Act A law enacted in that required colonies held in the fall of in Philadelphia.
The congress was called to try to solve the problems created by the Intolerable Acts. Torries The Tory political party believed the king should keep firm control of the colonies. Townshend Acts Laws enacted in that placed import duties on tea, glass, lead, paint, and paper. Whigs A British political party that believed in colonial self-government.
Vocabulary Activity Using the Vocabulary List, find the word to fill in the blanks: 1. It becomes the capital of the colony of New France. For the next ten years England is ruled by Oliver Cromwell. The Proclamation of by King George the Third forbids colonial expansion west of the Appalachians.
The Quartering Act requires colonial communities to provide food and shelter for British troops. The Declaratory Act tells the colonists that King and parliament have the right to tax the colonies even though they are not allowed to have parliamentary representation.
Overall, there are , English colonists in America. This is the beginning of Spanish colonization of the area. As a result, Boston harbor is blockaded, shutting down trade and the activities of the Massachusetts legislature are restricted.
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