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You are using an outdated browser. The website will not display correctly. Home Tracker Terms. However, if you want to read a few extra hundred pages about the unicorn, now almost twenty years old, here they are — in French only. Part 1 Part 2. One of the questions I was often asked was wether my game designs were influenced by poker. Of course, all my boardgames, and probably all games, have been influenced by one or more older games.

These are role playings games, Cosmic Encounter and Poker. Mascarade has deceptively simple rules, but it can be traced to these three roots. I played poker a lot. It was long ago, in the eighties and nineties, when European gamers still used pearly rectangular chips and not US style circular ones. Our boardgame sessions used to be followed by a long poker game, until the first metro. Stakes were far from ridiculous, but never dramatically high. In the first times, we played mostly draw poker and stud 5, which were the most popular then.

Some of these variants found their way into my games, like the mole, a kind of reverse anaconda, which I used for the card passing system in Mystery of the Abbey. A picture from the time when I still had some hair. I stopped playing poker in the early s. There may have been some snobbishness in giving up the game when it was becoming mainstream, but that was certainly not the main reason.

When it became mainstream, poker was standardized and lost its whackiness. Less zany, less varied, less creative, poker also became more technical. Good players were no more fool or adventurists, they were boring champions, like chess players or sportsmen. Gambling games seem to challenge this definition, since unlike in any other games, winning or losing has a lasting impact in the real life : some players get richer, others poorer. In games with a monetary stake like poker but not in gambling games purely based on luck, which are more about betting than playing , players try to win, and do mind if they win or lose.

Some players like to win, some enjoy the rapture of losing money, but all of them try to win as hard as they can. Despite this, poker has gamey mechanisms, a gamey feeling, and is obviously a game. In China, it is usual to add some monetary stake to any kind of game, including games which are never played for money in the west. This means that my definition of what a game is must be refined. Conversely, a flight simulator is a game because, while its mechanisms are almost identical to real ones, the stakes are not the same, and a crash much less serious.

I have fond memories of my poker years. When designing games, I have often tried to recreate what makes the special essence of poker, the real and psychological face to face between players — or, to put it otherwise, the fact that the game is not always a complete interface between players.

Poker is played with cards and with money, but mostly with players. In games like Citadels, Fist of Dragonstones, Letter of Marque, Lost Temple and, last of all, Mascarade, I think I managed to create a similar psychological tension between players, based mostly on the possibility of bluff, and I did it without the easy trick of money stakes. The tension in poker comes indeed from the stakes, which are as important a game component as the cards.

Je commencerai par Romans Go Home! Bref, si Romans Go Home! Romans Go Home! Another reason is that I spend much less time playing the many — far too many — games published, and focus on playing my prototypes, and those of my friends. Anyway, I want for once to make an exception and write a short post about three recently published light card games that I really enjoy and which, each in his own way, feel a bit like my own designs and therefore are likely to be enjoyed as well by those who play my games.

Romans go Home has all the stuff some gamers like, and others dislike, in many of my games : bidding, double guessing, and a healthy dose of chaos. If my name were on the box, players would not have been surprised — and I would have been proud.

If Romans Go Home! The cards special effects are few, but just enough to generate tactical and psychological conundrums — and some chaos. I like games that you win by clever play and lose by bad luck. It looks like the typical tile laying eurogame. Kudos to Bruno and Antoine for this masterwork of irony — a very nasty game based on the epitome of cute and delicate children book — it deserved it.

I was not in Essen last year, but when some gaming buddies came back from it, they told me of Coup and Love Letter, two games which felt a bit like the prototype of my Mascarade. I quickly ordered these two games. Coup feels indeed a bit like Mascarade but, honestly, I prefer my own game. As for Love Letter, designed by Seiji Kanai, a Japanese designer specialized in minimalistic games, I enjoyed it a lot.

In this 16 cards game for 2 to 4 players, each player starts with a character card in hand. The winner is the player with the highest card in hand when the game ends, or the last player in the game. Love Letter is a masterwork, but you must manage to find a copy with the original Japanese graphics, which have much more charm than the bland american ones. And pigs are cuter than zombies. So, if you prefer his games to mine, have a look at this one.

Alors, qui a raison? I have two jobs — designing games and teaching economics and sociology. These domains have one thing in common. They require a mix between two cultures, or two ways of thinking, the scientific and the literary one. Economics and sociology are certainly not hard sciences; they are social sciences, soft or fuzzy sciences, but they nevertheless use more math — and may be more than they ought to — than psychoanalysis or literary criticism.

Designing a board or card game is also a multifaceted activity. This is also true of video games and role playing games. In a fascinating interview , Matthiew Dunstan, the author of Relic Runners, soon to be published by Days of Wonder, explains that, for him, designing a game is mostly a mathematical exercise. Relic Runners is indeed directly inspired by the salesman problem — which already gave us several games, including one of my all time favorites, Elfenland.

If you check the game authors, many indeed have a mathematical background — Richard Garfield and Reiner Knizia both have a PhD in it. Others, like Matthew Dunstan or Bruno Cathala, graduated in chemistry or physics. The strangest thing is probably that, when I check my game designer friends, I have no idea of their style of academic background, if they have any. As usual, no one and everyone.. Everyone, because a game is a complex item, and because its designer — and often the same designer — can start from a theme, a mechanism or a component, and the creative process can therefore follow different paths.

Je crois que nous avons tous besoin de cette limite. My speech was mostly improvised, based on short and succinct notes. This text is therefore a reconstruction written a few weeks later. I apologize if it differs here or there from what I have effectively said, or from what other people might remember. I have a PhD in history and teach social sciences in a French high school, and I am also a prolific boardgame designer, but so far I always managed to keep these two activities apart.

My students know quite well that I am a gamer and a game designer. When teaching economics, i often use as examples the boardgame market and the boatdgame publishers, which I know quite well. They are good examples to explain the business cycles and seasonality, the production costs issues, and the outsourcing debate. My masters dissertation dealt with the way the rules of chess and, which was more fun, the theories about its origins evolved in the Middle-Ages and the Renaissance. Game and play are also an interesting topic for philosophy lectures — a specificity of French High schools.

Game in itself is not part of the programs, but Blaise Pascal, whom we will meet again later, is one of the authors most regularly studied. Math teachers are theoretically the only ones to tell specifically about games, but their so called game theory is badly named because it tells of all kinds of strategic decisions, and not specifically of games. Games are very popular among education theorists and bureaucrats.

Games as an academic topic is not a problem, and should be encouraged. Games as an educational tool are more problematic. I might have a different point of view if I were teaching younger children, with whom games can help save time, or at the university, where a deeper, better mastered and more formalized knowledge can more honestly be implemented in a game. I have three main issues with educational games.

First, it questions the very essence of gaming, which must be a diversion from real life. Second, it accentuates the actual trend to excessive formalism in school curricula and technics, especially strong in France. Third, it takes so much time that it challenges what ought to be the main goal of education, teaching to think, to understand, to question and to discuss everything.

Games are foremost a diversion from the real world, and for this reason a powerful anxiolytic Pascal , something which becomes more and more necessary when the society becomes more and more complex and intricate Durkheim. Games can fulfill these basic social function only if they are pointless, disconnected from the real world. I need a clear boundary between what is real and what is not, what is pointless and what is not, what is game and what is reality — and reality is not only work.

I think we all need this boundary. Students are highly conscious of this difference, and are wary of educational games. Educational games discredit education — it feels like teaching is shameful and has to de disguised as a game. They also discredit games, which become just vague and dishonest mathematical systems or social engineering tools. The core argument of the supporters of systematically using games in education is that games effectively teach strategic and analytical thinking.

But this might also be the problem. Games that can be used to teach economics or sociology are usually based on abstract, almost mathematical, models and therefore on a very specific, and usually very oriented, conception of the social world.

Both in economics and sociology, mathematical models have already done much harm, especially when politicians try to adapt the reality to their theoretical model, when well-thought scientific process is the exact opposite. The actual trend in French school curricula and teaching methods is to focus both on transmitting first basic and then encyclopedic knowledge, and on strategic and then analytical analysis, while carefully removing or hiding anything that could look like an open question or a possible debate.

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