Piano lesson igudesman and joo torrent

piano lesson igudesman and joo torrent

sidpirnem.space TZ hourly hourly sidpirnem.space Plus Tim Stein on his new 'Basics of Learning the Piano' video lessons Don't miss where the wild musical comedy duo of Igudesman & Joo (see profile in. When the pianist returns, the piano is locked, telling him to insert his credit card. Meanwhile, the violinist loses his bow to a vacuum cleaner and his. POSER PRO 2012 MAC TORRENT End to replace solutions can offer that is currently contact us so access to the ranges and usage across delivery groups. Reach out to you earlier, normally since The project's every day, you. PuTTY is a in another tab. This comprehensive process switching in and symbols on the that's left after the viewer.

Amy Denio Thurs Jan 30 : Underground leader Amy Denio, who's been in Seattle taking chances for years, doing all kinds of work in all kinds of genres and contexts: composition, improvisation, collaboration with film, dance, theater. Michaud Savage Fri Feb 28 : A Seattle-based composer, songwriter, and performer with influences in jazz, tango, film music, trance, Western classical music, overtone singing, and North and South American ecstatic singing.

The musicians will be joined by renowned Seattle theater director Sheila Daniels, singing! Garrick Ohlsson Wed Jan 15 : A stop on the tour for the piano giant. Holiday Concert Sun Dec 8 : Carol sing-along and festiveness galore with the local orchestra. Seattle Baroque Orchestra Presents Dresden Concertos Sat Jan 18 : Guest artist Rachel Barton Pine directs and performs concertos on the viola d'amore, a seven-stringed instrument popular years ago.

Mozart Birthday Toast Mon Jan 27 : Town Hall's fifth annual toast to Mozart's birthday he'd be this time brings a concert with pianist Byron Schenkman, soprano Linda Tsatsanis, violinist Liza Zurlinden, violist Jason Fisher, and clarinetist Sean Osborn, and chocolates, sparkling beverages, prizes, "and merriment all around.

Sun Feb 2 : Everybody's invited to join in on songs that are hundreds of years old. Obscure and neat! Bach-Gamel Sun Dec 8 : Yes! Gamelan Pacifica, with Stranger Genius vocalist Jessika Kenney and four baroque music specialists, explore links between music of the baroque period in Europe and Javanese gamelan. This should be unusual and grand. Canzonetta Sun Feb 9 : Canzonetta sings music spanning years. You could end up anytime.

Brechemin Auditorium, UW Campus, , music. Eric Zuber Sun Feb 23 : Zuber, a rising piano star, will perform a recital of works by Rachmaninoff and Schumann, then take part in a panel discussion: "Building a Career in Classical Music," with UW faculty and music professionals. Fight amongst yourselves about which of Bach's sons was the best. Handel's Messiah Sun Dec 15 : This is the first time the Seattle Chamber Singers have done this concert since , when they performed a version as a memorial to their founder, George Shangrow, who died in a car accident that year.

New conductor Clinton Smith takes the lead here. The Esoterics: Sacra Dec 6 through Dec 8 : In two programs this fall, the Esoterics perform Britten's entire repertory for a cappella chorus, divided into earthly and sacred. This second half is for heaven. We Can Swing It! Cheeseball never felt so good.

Support The Stranger. Log In Sign Up. Music Dec 4, at am. Jen Graves. Matthew Passion when the main choir splits into two and is accented by a third, releasing a torrent of layered sound. The story is taken from the Gospel of Matthew, chapters 26 and 27, tracking the plot against Jesus, and his death and burial. Bach wrote it in the s, for multiple soloists, double orchestra, double choir, organ. The words are in German, written by a poet of the time who went by the name Picander, and Bach prepared it for a church service—and for the ages.

Bach wrote for church every Sunday. His church was the luckiest church that ever was. Benaroya Hall, University St, 8 pm, Feb 21—22, , www. The first is common sense. The case in point is Mauricio Kagel: Music has also been a scenic event for a long time. In the nineteenth century people still enjoyed music also with their eyes, with all their senses. Only with the increas- ing dominance of the mechanical reproduction of music, through broadcasting and records, was this reduced to the purely acoustic dimension.

What I want is to bring the audience back to an enjoyment of music with all senses. My goal: a re-humanization of music-making! The third reason is that equating musicianship and sound-making seems to somehow lead to an idea of a totality that is never called sound, but always music. A contemporary version can be found in R. Behold the new orchestra: the sonic universe! And the musicians: anyone and anything that sounds! There is something about the concept of music that seems to have these effects.

It seems to have a complicated relationship with the senses, and perhaps there is something about its relationship to power and hierarchy that warrants further study. The problem that my initial premise came up against is the relationship of sound and music. The following chapter addresses this. If sound is a consequence of something done to something somewhere, what is music?

These assertions sound rather religious, and unless Nettl was addressing only those sharing his belief, they can even be considered aggressive. They are also willfully blind to the fact which Nettl confesses earlier in the article: not all cul- tures have a word nor concept that would correspond to the Western word and concept music.

How reliable is this evaluation of the universality of music, if the author himself confesses that he cannot provide a universally acceptable definition and charac- 40 Grove Music Online, s. No-one can tell you exactly what it is, but it is found everywhere, and you must believe in it. It is a call to believe what the author wants you to believe. Kenneth A. Can ethnomusicology claim to be a science when the phenomena investigated turn out to be those selected by investigating scholars as the result of personal intuition?

When the world is then examined with this ethos absorbed, is it any wonder that the examiner insists on the universality of its features? In other words: as a music scholar researches that which he or she intuitively recognizes as music, the field of research is unclear as well as subjective, and the findings will inevitably display features of the intuitive recognition, describing the intuition rather than the subject of study.

Some music scholars seem to admit that this is indeed the case. Despite going so far as to confess that mu- sic is whatever we call music, Nattiez, Berio, and Clifton do not continue to the follow-up question that begs to be made here. What sort of a concept is in question, if its content is entirely a matter of what we say it is?

Such concepts are definitions. And of course, trying to establish a boundary is a futile business, since it can be moved simply by a change of mind. Since the meaning of a definition is whatever we say or agree it to be, the attempts to define the definition will only yield results like the ones Nattiez and Berio have given us. I propose that this is the problem with the concept of music. It does not mean singing and the playing of instruments, it does not mean organized sound; it is supposed to mean what we say it does - an idea.

The implied claim is that music means itself. As the meaning is entirely dependent on the sayer, it is abstract, it lacks a relationship with what we use it on. The meaning is arbitrary and completely mental in fact, aligning with its An- cient Greek origins. But we use the word and concept as if it means something more than just an idea. Such discord causes problems. A person suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder may be thoroughly convinced that a door is not securely locked unless it is checked by the same person, uninterrupt- ed, seven times.

Compulsions are behaviors that the person feels compelled to perform in order to ease their distress or anxiety or suppress the thoughts. Reliance on such meanings describes OCD, in a literal or metaphorical sense. With the concept of music we have the same trouble. They are utterly incompatible. This is what the works presented in chapter one are presented as evidence of: through artistic means, it is possible to produce works that are impossible for our current conceptual tools to grasp. The Schaferian solution, declaring everything to be within the comprehensive do- minion of music, may seem like it would take care of the problem.

But let us take that statement to its logical conclusion. This would mean submission to a single opinion that vetoes all facts. There could be no plurality of views. No disagreement allowed, no evidence accepted. It would be a totalitarian system where anything that disagrees with the ruling definition would be judged not real. The final word leaves others no room to add anything.

A descriptive account is not the last word; it invites further accounts, a conver- sation on the topic. Descriptive accounts can be quite opposite to each other and still agree on what they are describing. It was called The National Soundscape, and it featured five wonderful instrumental- ists from the Joensuu City Orchestra.

As part of the soundwalk concert, violinist Eila Helske played some of her own birdsong transcriptions, which are micro- tonal. One said it was wonderful how she played so realistically — after all, birds do not usually conform to the Western system where a halfstep is the smallest increment.

Another said it was unfortunate and displeasing how the violinist played so out of tune. These very different opinions and preferences are compatible in that they both are descriptions of the same witnessed event. These were not judgments on whether or not the violin-playing was music or not; what was discussed was not merely an idea, but something perceived. It is not possible to have such conversations on what constitutes music.

It may not become evident right away, but since the concept in question is a definition, the conversation will sooner or later become a fight between incompatible stances, this word against that, unless there is agreement to begin with. Rothenberg defines birdsong as music. The ornithologists do not. The result is not a fruitful exchange of ideas and understanding concerning birdsong, but a quarrel concerning whether or not birdsong constitutes music.

Unlike definitions, descriptions converse; that a description needs an external tar- get means that an encounter between descriptions will not get personal the way redefining does. Defining claims the object; describing leaves it in the commons of perception, and claims only the description itself; there is a value judgment in the act of describing, but it is not assimilated into the object of description.

This, understandably, troubles them. This is dogmatic and oppressive. The concept of music is a fiat that only sees itself and is blind to everything else. His work is fascinating and wonderful, sparking curiosity and joy. I am only trying to make the point that the concept of music is utterly useless in understanding this kind of work.

Ultimately, it is useless anywhere — which is something that I wish to lay out in the following chapters. Option 1 presents us with two incompatibles, giving us insufficient tools to un- derstand the cases presented in chapter one of this dissertation. Option 2 is completely absurd. Clearly, the third option is 3 nothing is music. What would this entail? Merely the removal of the music concept. Nothing should be put in its place; instead, what will happen is what is already being done, but without a nothingness ruling over it.

Abstraction subsiding, we would use whatever descriptive, and thus open and incomplete, non-finalized, concepts are practical for the situation. These concepts exist already. A band rehearsing its material does not talk about music, it talks about melody, chords, bass lines, guitar riffs, lyrics, hooks, vamps, grooves.

If nothing is music, it is nothing that should take its place. To show that this is indeed possible, I wish to draft here a brief conceptual history of music. Through this, the concept is shown to not be universal. There is quite probably thinking that precedes it; but what is easier to show is that there is evidence of alternative mindsets. To make alternatives visible, I draw an outline of how the concept of music has survived through Western history.

This is but a sketch, but I believe it is an important sketch. A thorough Begriffs- geschichte Der Musik will remain a proposed work for interested radical historians! The answer is, lamentably, no. What has been done many times is the de- piction of what we nowadays call music throughout history. But that is not a real Begriffsgesichte; that approach is blind precisely in the way Gourlay describes. But that approach is blind as a bat and backwards.

The concept of music can- not be understood by taking an intuitive absorbed predicated expectation of the universal and tracking backward in history with it. We must begin with the original viewpoint and trace its undulations. Only then can the contemporary situation be evaluated properly.

Such evaluation is necessary for understanding the problematic presented in chapter one. This is not only a fringe issue concerning artistic practice that falls in the in-between areas, this also concerns similar settings in larger scales. Ultimately, the total work of art displays the issues in an expanded form. This matter is addressed in chapter seven. Beginning Historians typically place the beginnings of music at the dawn of humanity. An- cient bone flutes are touted as proof.

Music has been such a pervasive concept in Western culture that it may be very hard to see the difference. Etymologically speaking, calling something music began in Ancient Greece. These two words are an adjective and a noun. Why, at the level of words, are we giving credit to the Muses?

Schueller comes close to being a conceptual history. He gives away his hellenist disposition right at the start, though — begin- ning with mythological murk, as if music has been always. Instead, it shared in whatever governs knowledge and ability or capacity. Suggested is everything except gym- nastics — that is, the mental, as compared with the physical man.

It was thought that a person guided by the Muses was favored by them with a certain capacity which allowed him to pursue his own characteristic activities and skills. As god and leader, Apollo would transmit the gift of music to human beings. Homer and Hesiod, as they themselves remind us, were granted their priestly domain, func- tions, and gifts by the Muses, upon whom they not infrequently called for help in the course of their works.

The latter included auletics and citharoetics, the arts of playing the aulos and cithara - no more free than the job of sailing a boat or leading an army Or perhaps musical self-absorption is actually a mental muzzle, preventing a person from 56 Ibid. Together with mathematics and gymnastics athletics , it meant education for the complete man of high social rank , in a male-oriented society. It addresses the whole society through men of high social rank.

In this sense, it excludes women - except the Muses, idealized and dominant, in stark contrast to the status of real women. Playing a lyre was not music unless it was. Playing an instrument, plucking out melodies, was just that, playing an in- strument.

Only if it was deemed to be inspired, guided by a being called a Muse, only then it was music. Not only playing instruments, but any activity of the soul that was considered inspired, directed by a Muse, was music. Hence the adjective: muse -ic. Music does not mean the activity, it means the purported inspiration.

Tekhne is the word that referred to the activity itself. This is the root reason why there can be no definition of music other than what Berio and Nattiez have given. Music is what we call music; the same applied in Antiquity. It was a religious label referring to supernatural beliefs. Regarding its beginnings, it is of course likely that there is a predecessor. Earlier cultures were a source for many aspects of Greek myth and religion Eusebius even called them thieves For an example, through the Pythagoreans came an Egyptian religious influence The religiosity of the concept explains the current behaviour of the concept of music.

Even if the beliefs are removed, music is still a religious label. Speaking of the standardized manner of dress and behavior of professional concert musicians the world over, Christopher Small notes the parallel with the dress and stylized gestures of a priest celebrating mass.

The parallel with priests is not accidental. Musicians of the Western classical tradition often perceive themselves, and are perceived, as having a kind of priestly function, as the bearers of something sacred and eternal, something that transcends time and human life. The concept brings along its baggage. What baggage? What were or are the beliefs in question, then? The Muses were led by Apollo. Music was an Apollonian cult.

Besides music, Apollo was believed to be god of many things - youth, harmony, prophecy, archery, healing, and plague. The lyre is associated with him, and along with it, the idea of harmony between different spheres, rationality and higher thinking. Nietzsche associated Apollo with calm rationality and Dionysos with strong emotionalism They believed themselves, in this way, to acquire mystic knowledge not obtain- able by ordinary means. This mystical element entered into Greek philosophy with Pythagoras, who was a reformer of Orphism as Orpheus was a reformer of the religion of Dionysus.

From Pythagoras Orphic elements entered into the philosophy of Plato, and from Plato into most later philosophy that was in any degree religious. What is normally noted is the importance the Pythagoreans placed on numbers, their view of the universe as mathematical, and the connection of these to proportions in tuning and pitch. But thinking of the Pythagoreans simply as a bunch of Greek math heads is ignorant of the mystico-religious basis from which the ideas and doctrines are derived.

Dionysus became a favorite son to Zeus. Hera had the Titans kill Dionysus; they ate him, but his heart was preserved by Athena, who gave it to Zeus. Zeus smote the Titans with a lightning bolt, and from their ashes humans were formed. Orphism, then, taught that the human body was composed of dead, evil gods. The flesh was therefore evil, and the soul good. The Orphic lifestyle was ascetic, vegetarian no beans either , and nonsensual. The ultimate goal was communion with the divine, possible only upon death as the evil flesh was shed.

Orphism taught transmigration metempsychosis , however, so even death was not necessarily the solution. Unsuccessful dealings after death resulted in unwanted rebirth. Pythagoras and Apollo Like Orpheus, Pythagoras was said to have been the son of Apollo, who was his patron god The importance of Apollo for Pythagoras is well-known - his name is associat- ed with the Pythian oracle This refers to the legend concerning Delphi, where Apollo slew the dragon Pytho and took control of her sanctuary and priestess, the Pythia The people of Croton, where Pythagoras founded his sect, called him the Hyperborean Apollo.

Pythagoras himself claimed earlier reincar- nations that were distinctly Apollonian These are but a few examples; Riedweg lists many more Porphyry recounts that Pythagoras was the only mortal capable of hearing this harmony; everybody else was limited in nature. Pythagoras was believed to be a transmitter of the harmony, imitating it with instruments and voice79, the intermediate between humans and the divine.

This connects to the numerical intervals of the octave , fifth , and fourth It was in this sense that the original Pythagorean school held that numbers are the primary reality. The correspondence 79 Riedweg, 29 — Transmigration is not a positive thing; rebirth is a punishment. Transmigration of souls was also the basis and justification for the myriad rules and regulations of the Pythagorean sect.

Obey, and avoid the punishment of having to live again. Aspiring candidates who wished initiation into the cult had to remain silent for five years, never seeing Pythagoras himself, but only being allowed to hear him from behind a curtain. Gregory Pope Gregory I , who dictated from behind a curtain. Deadworld is wiped clean of the living: life itself is declared a crime punished by death, since only the living commit crimes.

The Dark Judges repeatedly attack Megapolis in order to administer their brand of justice. The Orphic-Pythag- orean decree is the same: life is sin, the solution is to purge life out; and it is not enough to simply die because that only results in rebirth via metempsychosis. The sought release from life was an undead state - to die while still alive, by evocation of magical Sisters, the Muses. Judge Death followed suit with Phobia and Nausea. It is taking death as the governing principle and applying it onto life; the taking of a complete lack of ethics and applying it where ethics are necessary; the application of nothingness on everything.

The Orphic-Pythagorean doctrine teaches self-redemption. The human soul is thought to be divine, captured in the evil flesh of fallen gods; through self-ad- ministered purification and turning away from the world of cause and effect and completely towards the soul the inward turn , a cathartic liberation from phys- ical life and its accidentals is sought. What is really going on is worship of the self that leads to death - which happens to be also a rough summary of the myth of Narcissus.

Schueller sees a parallel between Pythagoras and Christ87, and between the Orphic cult and Christianity Here he is clearly mistaken and confuses the body with the soul: for the Orphics and Pythagoreans, the soul was not fallen, the body was. Therefore the flesh was despised, and the soul, the inner self, worshipped.

In Christianity, the soul is the part that needs purification, because self-worship is precisely that which it fell into, and the purification of the hu- man soul is only achievable by God, which is the whole point of the Christ. The commonly held association, that the Fall in the Book of Genesis was a matter of carnal knowledge, does not come from the Book of Genesis; instead, seeing sex as original sin shows an external influence — and it is not far-fetched to see this influence as Pythagorean, that is, Platonic through the early Alexandrian Church fathers.

This lineage explains the survival of the music concept, and it is essentially Platonic. Platonic influence on accounts concerning Pythag- oras and Pythagoreanism means that it is hard to say where one ends and the other begins Considering the concept of music, two features 87 Schueller, Plato set up a shrine for the Muses in his Academy, more likely because he sought to continue the Pythagorean tradition than for the reason that the tradition regarding Pythagoras was modeled on Plato However much can be said about the differences between the philosophy of Aristotle and that of this teacher, when we take the point of view of tracing the conceptual history of music, it is clear Aristotle passed it on.

Hellenism became a dominant component of culture wherever it fused with oriental thought and life, particularly in Alexandria. His empire irrevers- ibly altered the sociopolitical world of the Greeks by replacing the local world of the polis, the Hellenic model of the independent, democratic city-state, with an internationalizing vision of the entire world as polis. Calling it a 'library' gives it the air of a secular knowledge centre, and misses the religious core.

As the Romans adopted Greek gods, the Muses came with the package. Virgil invokes a Muse at the beginning of Aenaid just as Homer in Odyssey, or Hesiod, a whole bunch of them, in Theogony. By the first century CE, veneration of Pythagoras had become traditional in Rome. Riedweg gives several reasons to think that, contrary to commonly held opinion, it had not waned; instead, there was even a sense of local patriotism since Aristotle the Pythagoreans were called the Italics.

For it is not with the gods as with you: you are Velleius wherever you go, but Vulcan is not Vulcan in Italy and in Africa and in Spain. The foreign element is not respected as such, but in fact denied, in a sense. What is accepted is the pre-existing Roman conception that is deemed by Romans to be corresponding to the foreign.

There is not much tolerance to speak of, quite the opposite really. For the Romans, Vulcan was what they called Vulcan. Recalling Berio and Nattiez: music is what we call music. Interpretatio graeca et romana never left the stage. Interpretatio is the presumption, even conviction, that every new thing encoun- tered ultimately fits the grid that was already in place.

It is what we say it is. Nothing is really a surprise, because we have a system, we have it all figured out. This conviction of the universality of music is what Gour- lay critiqued; the unwillingness to adjust to the studied culture, to grant it the possibility of being fundamentally different.

Rightly Ando calls interpretatio naming, not translation For translation must be done on the terms of the target language - which means that there are pos- sible non-translatables, something may be lost in translation; and also at times the need to form new expressions in the target language to convey aspects of the source.

Translation is possible between equals, and for that reason can be done in both directions. Interpretatio continues along a forking path From Plutarch to Boethius d. Beginning in Asia Minor and also especially in Alexandria, this Church carried a basically new musical idea to the West, eventually to make it Roman and European. Plutarch 45 - AD was a priest of Apollo. Another Pythagorean-like feature is that he believed in the transmigration of the soul And can we see the spirit of interpretatio in his echoing Plato and ultimately the Pythagorean ideas regarding cosmic harmony in in- tervals and consonances?

For when we compare that which is coherently and harmoniously joined together in sound-that is, that which gives us pleasure-so we come to recognize that we ourselves are united according to this same principle of similarity. For similarity is pleasing, whereas dissimilarity is unpleasant and contrary. Especially in the last chapter, Schafer declares the same Pythagorean doctrines Compared with path 1 , the Neoplatonist-Hebraic path of Philo, continued by the Church Fathers, has a twist.

What is suggested is that Greek and Hebrew heritages were mixed and this was carried on into what became Christian Europe. Philo indeed upheld that Genesis was compatible with Timaeus; and later, Church Fathers such as Clement of Alexandria also saw Christianity as fulfilment and continuity of both Plato and Moses The Renaissance saw the resurgence and amplification of this combination, as the Greek and Roman classics were reintroduced, with the unprecedented means of the printing press.

Luc Brisson explains how allegorical interpretation explains the survival of myth, even through substantial change brought by the end of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity. The appearance of Christianity, and above all its domination, complicated the issue. Henceforth myth had to not only accord with history and philosophy but it should also not collide directly with church dogma.

Thus a new effort of adaptation and hence of interpretation, was agreed to, first by the church fathers, then by think- ers and artists in the Byzantine world as well as those of the Western Middle Ages. This rescue was not easy in those trouble periods when the transmission of knowl- edge was a difficult undertaking. Yet it was genuine, so much so that the Renaissance inherited a treasure trove of narratives and representations whose true forms it fervently undertook to restore. Allegory enabled the constant adaptation and interpretation of myths to fit the context in which they were received.

Thus the concept of music marched on along with other Greek religious ideas and myths. Assimilation Pythagoras was supposed to have gathered rituals, rites, rules, initiations, and so on, from a variety of sources: Egyptians, Persians, Phoenicians, Chaldeans, Jews, and even Indian sages, Celts and Iberians. The entire universe is united at the self-worshipping self.

The cult of Apollo claimed the navel of the world Delphi. This attitude can firstly fuel collecting, and once a sufficient collection is built, a ruling. Rome goes everywhere and then claims that all roads lead to Rome. In terms of the surrounding world, interpretatio is parasitic. Lower your shields and surrender your ships. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile.

There is no two-way com- munication; only the Hive has a say on the matter. In another sci-fi feature film, Guardians of the Galaxy 2 , narcissistic as- similation is depicted in another way. The father of the main protagonist, Peter Quill, is called Ego. He presents himself as a loving father in search of his lost son, but under this guise, his agenda is the domination of the universe.

You are a god! His friends are his real family, as declared by Drax in an earlier scene: Nebula: [to Gamora] All any of you do is yell at each other. Everybody else is ok, as long as I control them, that is, as long as they are me. The togetherness of the Guardians of the Galaxy is not a harmonious sameness. The possibility of an alternative Philo, a Hellenist and a Pythagorean, represented an allegorist extreme in Jewish thought of the time. From Jerusalem warnings were issued against such views.

It is one of the sources of the legend that the Septuagint was perfectly translated by 72 Jewish scholars arriving at identical results, despite working independently. When assimilated, you cannot remain you. Only the Empire has its apologetics — you do not.

The Maccabean revolt - BCE shows the clash of the two sides of the issue. He set out to seize Judaea, and to remove the nuisance of the nonconformist Jewish religion. Nonconformism was not OK, because he wanted to unify his vast and heterogeneous empire by establishing one religion for all. They regarded Hellenism as a form of nature worship.

They saw it as the spiritual continuation of the religion of the Ca- naanites After forbidding Jewish religious practices and enforcing Hellenization in a variety of measures, he eventually invaded Jerusalem and de- filed the Temple of Jerusalem, dedicating it to Zeus on December 25th, BCE.

A number of Jews chose the path of conformity, but resistance rose and was led by priest Mattathias and his family the Maccabees. Thus, the ensuing guer- rilla war was as much a matter of civil war as of national resistance. The Jewish evaluation of Hellenism, that like with the Canaanites, the Hellenic gods were mythologized anger, lust, hate, envy, and greed, seems like a logical explanation.

Gnothi seauton - worship yourself. Antiochus was certainly not the only example of this. Narcissism cannot be enjoyed by all, of course. The structure that it generates is not one of equality - it is a hierarchy of oppression.

Only one Emperor can be at the top. Below him, there are those who worship him and are oppressed by him. Below those people, there are those who worship them: the oppression is passed on. Continuing further along these lines, matters get worse the lower one goes in the pyramid of narcissism. Each worshipper of the person above compensates the oppression they experience by oppressing others, that is, demanding worship from them. The horrible necessity of this power structure is that at the bottom there must be those who are only victims, with no one to oppress in turn.

This bottom layer consists of non-people; they are not people because they cannot worship themselves. The Borg Hive cannot get enough and be satisfied with what it has, and become a peaceful colony. It has to keep assimilating. Eventually, the Borg would have to assimilate themselves, eat Ibid. The view the Jews represented was annoying to this imperialism because it spoke of an antithesis to narcissism. Man was therefore not worthy of worship, not by others, nor by himself.

What does all this have to do with the history of calling things music? The Jewish resistance to the Hellenizing Borg and interpretatio graeca indi- cates the possibility of the kind of thinking that does not call things music music being a religious Hellenic concept. Richard Taruskin writes of a disjuncture that supports this possibility.

Pre-Christian Jewish psalmody centered around temple rites that came to an end when the temple itself was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE. One has only to read some famous passages from the psalms themselves, as well as other biblical texts, to become aware of this disjuncture. I reads, in part: Praise Him with fanfares on the trumpet, praise Him upon the lute and harp; praise Him with tambourines and dancing, praise Him with flute and strings; praise Him with the clash of cymbals, praise Him with triumphant cymbals; Ibid.

One will not find such goings-on in any contemporary Catholic Church or synagogue; nor were they ever part of pre-Reformation Christian worship. As an example, he mentions Justin the Martyr mid- 2nd c. It originated elsewhere, and later. Taruskin clearly ignores references to the singing of psalms in the New Testa- ment. The Christianity for which Philo provided a foundation-stone was criticized by the Protestant Reformation.

Virtually the entire Ethics of Aristotle is the worst enemy of grace. This in oppo- sition to the scholastics. It is an error to say that no man can become a theologian without Aristotle. This in opposition to common opinion. Indeed, no one can become a theologian unless he becomes one without Aristotle. Briefly, the whole Aristotle is to theology as darkness is to light. It would have been better for the church if Porphyrus with his universals had not been born for the use of theologians.

He began by defining dogma as the objective content of faith affirmed by the religious authorities, determining the boundaries of the Christian community. Traditionally, the Christian Church viewed dogma as the revealed truths of the Gospel. Harold J. Grimm and Helmut T. Lehmann Philadelphia: Fortress Press, , Although dogma had its origin in the Gospel, as it developed the simple message of Christian faith became intertwined with the objectified knowledge of Hellenistic.

In other words, Harnack saw the development of Christian dogma as the intellectualization and Hellenization of the gospel. Although the Protestant Reformation recognized this historical situation to some extent, Harnack argued that it stopped short and did not finalize its criti- cal relationship toward the dogmatic contents of Christianity. Thus, the Reformation was an unfin- ished program that confused the essentials and non-essentials of the faith.

Both are fiat, sheer definitions, relying only on the word of a human authority. In their radical Protestant critique of the practices of the Western Church, Frank Viola and George Barna locate the roots of its liturgical practices in pre-Christian Roman religious customs They also see a connection between the end of the persecution of Christians and the introduction of these customs, both after the Edict of Milan AD.

The choir a Roman custom , and a specially trained musical clergy in general, was gradually introduced, and singing by the laity was even forbidden at the Council of Laodicea ca. The Edict of Milan seems to declare religious freedom. My emphasis. Luther H. It was a process that seems analogous with the Helleni- zation of the Jews; a sort of interpretatio is applied.

Not exactly the same kind, of course; at Constantine, the canon assumed a Christian face. Despite a newly adopted Christian front, what Rome really kept going were its interpretatio roots. The concept of music advanced through this Greco-Roman channel, affecting the customs of the Church, showing up in thinkers like Boethius, finding more strength during the Renaissance due to the resurfacing of the Greek and Roman classics, and thriving in various articulations to the present day, even in Protestant socie- ties, because the Reformation stopped short of exposing the Hellenic roots fully.

Interpretatio graeca et romana never stopped; in Christianity, it encountered an unprecedented challenge, causing it to change appearance. But the tactics remained the same. What used to be imperial interpretatio, that is, the empire having the last word and being the top authority on the gods within the realm, became Church dogma, institutional control over matters of faith.

The first possibility are other ancient cultures. Are there those that were unin- fluenced by the Greeks? This is a difficult question because of the influences the Greeks received from other cultures, and on the other hand, the influences they passed on to others.

Finding alternative paradigms to the music-concept in ancient cultures would seem to require an extensive study in Ancient history and comparative religion. A hint towards an alternative is found in Gourlay: pre-Colonial African languages. He mentions the Nigerian musicologist Chinyere Nwachukwu. This possibility can be viewed more broadly, including other non-Western lan- guages too. The qin, a traditional Chinese instrument, is a wooden zither with silk strings.

Stefan Kuzay, email message to the author, October 7, What is in common to these chronologically disparate groups is their adherence to the Hebrew Scriptures Early Christians started out without the New Testament, the texts of which were completed during the first century AD. Some of these Scriptures are ancient enough to qualify for the first possibility pre-Greek.

In the Grove entry cited above, Nettl mentions something interesting that concerns this possibility: the word muzika was imported to Hebrew about a thousand years ago. This would mean that the word must be absent from the Hebrew Bible. The question remains whether or not there are corresponding words. Both avenues deserve further study. For the purposes of this dissertation, the second possibility is the more practical one by far, thanks to an abundance of resources.

This could support the idea that the dogma of music came to the Ancient Greeks from another earlier culture. Finally, these are compared with the Greco-Roman concept. What is attempted here is a criticism of such translation, to see if it is justified. Could it be that Ancient Hebrew is like a pre-colonial African language, featuring something different from the calling-things-music- ethos?

Such a view might be more suitable for understanding the artistic situations described in chapter one. Without a music vs. Describing the Ancient Hebrew Concepts In Ancient Hebrew and other Semitic languages, morphology word formation is based on a root system.

However, although the root is not a word, it is associated with a core meaning, which may be in- ferred from the group of words in which it is embedded. There is a parabolic air: plucking strings is like tending to a vine to increase its fruitfulness, and a plucked melody is like choice picked fruit.

The concept encompasses both. One gets the idea of singing accompanied by the playing of a plucked string instrument. A modern manifestation of a ZMR concept is klezmer. Two-consonant roots also exist, making it possible that naga shares a two-consonant root NG with nagan.

The idea here seems to be tactile, like with the ZMR-words, but with a different hue. Nagan is to touch in order to cause a sound or to touch the soul by doing so. But this is based on tradition, not on the meaning of the word, which is uncertain. In The Passion Translation, Dr. It concerns a social role or status, a certain kind of spiritual position in the community. As with zamar and zimrah, there is a parabolic reference related to wine-making. Netzach is used figuratively for blood and strength Isa.

The croak of a small screech-owl is its shir; a drinking party may belt out a drinking shir; and a psalm sung at the temple is a shir of praise Something similar is happening with dachavan, likewise occuring only once, concerning King Darius refusing something Daniel The meaning of Klein, Some conclusions Compared to the religious mousike concept, these Ancient Hebrew words have a rather different air.

They are concrete in nature: a plucking motion, the act of touch; the quality of glorious brilliance, and quite simply - song. As the usage of shir demonstrates, for example, these Hebrew and Aramaic concepts themselves do not differentiate on the basis of a religious definition.

They are not dogmatic. In the Septuagint, some instances of shir, shirah, mizmor a zmr-word , and all of the Aramaic zemar are rendered as mousikos, while others are not Further study could perhaps reveal whether or not this is systematic in some way; for the purposes of this study, it suffices to note that this suggests a Hellenistic influence that made a definitive distinction where the Hebrew language itself did not.

For zemer and nagan, corresponding English verbs are such as to pluck, to pick, to play, to strum, even to sing, and so forth; and shir is simply to sing a song. In Ancient Hebrew and Aramaic, we can see evidence that the music concept is not ultimately necessary, and that it has not been used by everybody. It is possible to discuss matters with simple, descriptive concepts that do not depend on a definition given by an emperor or a priesthood.

Music is generally thought to be a secular word, whereas the Ancient Hebrew stuff easily evokes religious associations. The secular games in Rome were a religious festival, held at the interval of a lifetime saeculum. The Book of Daniel mentions sumponeya Dan. Louw and Eugene A.

Nida, eds. Some scholars contend that the reference is to music produced by several instruments, while others insist that this is music produced by a single instrument, possibly a double flute or a kind of bagpipe. Maybe this is what the elder brother heard - someone playing bagpipe and folks singing and partying in a manner that could be heard outside apparently the dancing could be heard, too. We find musicians in a list of sound-makers that will no longer be heard in Bab- ylon: kitharodon kithara players , mousikon, auleton aulos players , and salpis- ton salpinx players.

This suggests that the understanding of the author of the text was that a player of a kithara, aulos or salpinx is not the same thing as a musician. The context is thus decidedly negative. The writer of Revelation places mousikon conspicuously in a place of deception, sorcery and murder, not anywhere else.

There are many scenes of choirs singing and trumpets sounding in the text. Why would mousikon only appear in that one spot? Singing and the playing of instruments is referred to with a variety of words in the NT, such as the verbs psallo, ado, humneo, and nouns like psalmos derived from psallo and ode from ado. We see here a concept very similar to zemer — it is about a plucking movement, and like with zemer, the word also refers to singing accompanied with a plucked instrument.

Instead, the only occurrence in the NT associates it with something evil, and moreover, discerns between the sounds of mousikon and the sounds of lyres and wind instruments. There is an additional upsilon when comparing with Apollon; but that name has had various spellings.

The aim of the exploration in this chapter is not exegetical. While there may be theological implications, the focus of this inquiry is not there. There are musicians, but they are associated with evil; musicians make sounds, but an instrumentalist or singer is not necessarily a musician - it depends who one is singing or playing to. It seems justified to say that Revelation sees music as Rev.

This is actually an instance of the music concept being used in a descriptive manner! When it comes to the concept of music, the NT does not continue a Hellenic lineage, instead, it attacks it. It took a process of interpretatio to form the kind of religious organi- zation where Christian music sic could begin. Schueller actually points in this direction when he speaks of the forking paths in the passage quoted above This interpretatio began well before Christianity in Alexandria with the Septuagint, was continued by Philo, and carried on in a new context by some of the Early Church Fathers.

In Con Voce by Mauricio Kagel, a trio of instrumentalists are given notated material to play, but the score forbids making any of the notated sounds with the instruments. The players are still required to make the appropriate movements to operate the instruments, but are only allowed to make vocal sounds that more or less correspond with the score. The composer has used his definitive power to define the instruments to be silent, only to be used in a gestural role.

In Failing: a Very Difficult Piece for String Bass by Tom Johnson, the solo double bassist is required to both play the notation, which starts easy and gets increasingly difficult, and speak the text above the notation. Even improvisation is at times required also in the spoken part. But centrally, the player is required to fail. Shakespeare made use of this in Othello. Sir, by many a wind-instrument that I know. First Musician Well, sir, we will not. First Musician We have none such, sir.

Exeunt Musicians. Othello 3. One religiously sticks to it, and denies physical reality. Problem solved. But others see the absurdity of such extreme idealism and try to redefine the concept of music in order to reconcile it with physical reality. These strands can be seen in modern and contemporary thought.

The following is not an exhaustive survey. Its purpose is to show that the utopian abstraction, that the concept of music carries, is still in effect — it was not left behind at any point. It is the proposition of this thesis that it should finally be disavowed.

Further reasons for this are given after the following survey. Murray Schafer When R. This background is as Neopythagorean as can be. The implication is startlingly total. Very little, if anything, is left out - what can you do without making any sound?

Clairaudience is the exceptional, mystical ability of hearing of it, Pythagoras being one such adept And what is the ultimate goal of the harmonization? It is not the improvement of the world, making it better to live in; the purpose is liberation from the senses, total silence, since the physical world is impure and imperfect Dominion over all sound — but to what end? Deathly nothingness.

If we take music to be an art, the claim is that music aspires to the condition of music - a redundant sentence For while in all other works of art it is possible to distinguish the matter from the form, and the understanding can always make this distinction, yet it is the constant effort of art to obliterate it. That the mere matter of a poem, for instance—its subject, its given incidents or situation; that the mere matter of a picture—the actual circumstances of an event, the actual topography of a landscape—should be nothing without the form, the spirit, of the handling; that this form, this mode of handling, should become an end in itself, should penetrate every part of the matter:—this is what all art constantly strives after, and achieves in different degrees.

It is the art of music which most completely realises this artistic ideal, this perfect identification of form and matter. Music, then, and not poetry, as is so often supposed, is the true type or measure of perfected art.

Form must be an end to itself; it ultimately discards matter, having used it to achieve this self-focus. The way Pater talks about music could be better understood as a variation of Pythagorean mysticism: music is not just one of the art forms, it is the principle governing them all. The claim that all arts aspire to this abstraction suggests that art forms are to be combined, and that once they are, this abstraction principle must rule. The Romantics The Romantics voiced the liberation-from-the-world pursuit explicitly.

But it concerns nothing real, nothing that we as a humanity actually share and is therefore also disconnected from ethics. At its root it is the denial of everything, a totality of nothingness. This puts one in accord with nature in her manner of operation. This is not a paradox, it is a contradiction.

Black, , 82 — 83, 97 — Social justice is a desire; to care for another is a purpose. Cage seems to go the opposite direction from Schafer, but arrives at a similar place. John Cage: A Life. New York: Arcade, , Richard Taruskin shows how Cage was not a jester he was very serious , and neither was his Zen an import- ed foreign sensibility.

That may seem like the composer has relinquished control over the event. But a composer is not only in control of sounds but people, too. Ebsco Academic Search Elite. There are vertical lines, that in proportional notation stand for elapsed time. One of the pages is bypassed by such markings and is left blank.

The self is the yardstick for everything. Phenomenological reduction claims to focus on per- ception while, at the same time, calling the external world something like an illusion to be thrown away. On the basis of a relationship, that very relationship is thrown away, and the self is exalted. Phenomenological reduction is another name for the curtain. It is the listening itself that becomes the origin of the phenomenon to be studied.

Schaeffer acknowledges that communication becomes impossible without something in common to refer to; that there is a correlation between manipulations to which one subjects a tape and the perceived object. Even so, pulling the cart in two opposite directions, he insists on total abstraction. What is implied is that causality takes away clarity of perception.

We have at our disposal the generality of sounds — at least in principle — with- out having to produce them; all we have to do is push the button of a tape recorder. It is not a coincidence that Wronski was obsessed with Pythagorean theories. From the Pythagoreans to the Romantics and contemporary esoterics, from Pyrrho to Husserl and his disciples, the utopian fantasy remains the same: es- caping the annoying, limiting, painful conditions of reality by decoupling the mind from it.

If the mind is separated from anything outside itself, it can always be right. Ignorance is bliss. A non-place is not available. Neither is a voice on the radio any more disembodied than a person on an escalator is legless. Loudspeakers sound like loudspeakers. Mediation is a causal chain, not a split. Both are mistaken in their ignorance of the nature of transmission. If there really was a schism, a split from the causes, the signal would not be identifiable. While Ibid. Michael Votta, Jr.

The scene ends with Taylor falling asleep, Bill trying to wake him up unsuccessfully. Taylor represents the neohellenist stance, fantasy. Bill represents the redefiner, whose feet are more on the ground. The redefiner has the common sense to discern between fantasy and nostalgia. We can easily believe s New York is a place Bill actually remembers. Among these special sciences Harmonic occupies a primary and fundamental position; its subject matter consists of the fundamental principles - all that relates to the theory of scales and keys; and this once mastered, our knowledge of the science fulfils every just requirement, because it is in such a mastery that its aim consists.

The possession of this greater science constitutes the musician. His treatise is not on music, but on Harmony, one of many subdivisions of all-embracing mousike. Aristoxenus defends the role of perception, but not concerning what mousike is; this is critique concerning practice.

He also makes a difference between musical and non-musical melodies There- fore he is not making the case for melodies as such to be music - music is a religious purpose for which some melodies are fit and some are not. Flora R. He sees music, the noun, as an abstraction of the verb. The redefinition changes nothing. Small vehemently opposes Platonic reification, but right off the bat, he bases his neologism on the abstract concept of music, Aristoxenus Tarentinus, The Harmonics of Aristoxenus, ed.

The result is the expansion of the non-thing, a sort of total reification, any activity being seen as an actualization of the abstract concept of music. Because that concept is kept in place. Everything is put under the dominion of the abstract, despite the aim to do the opposite.

What follows is that Small does not really say anything new. He opposes the Cartesian split; but following Bateson, Small goes to the other extreme, where mind is matter. This is a cognitivist-style view of the mind, the brain as a computer. But such a brain, such a mind, is not relational.

It cannot be in relationship because it is passive; the consciousness is only a result, not an instigator of anything. Opposing transcendentalism with materialist views brings something to the fore. Materialism is idealism in disguise or in denial , because it, too, is an idea. Because of this, it really does not assert the fundamentality of matter, but that of an idea concerning matter.

Both are incapable of providing a ground for ethics! Humility cannot mean selflessness. How can I humble my non-existent self that is an illusion of some sort?

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Join us on a journey through our wacky hall of mirrors and see for yourself all the weird and wonderful ways these two languages come together to reflect the Zeitgeist of the new millennium. We live in an age in which the market economy tyrannizes over art. The quality of an artwork is judged by the quantity of sales. We all squint at the sales-volume statistics, the chart placement and the commercial media presence.

The more popular, the better. Everyone wants to be a superstar! But in consequence, we all too often lose sight of the true meaning of music: the uplifting union of feeling and intellect, the intimate and profoundly emotional expression of the soul. By means of this close-up, we hope to achieve a healthy distance from all forms of commercial dumbing-down. So lets laugh together about whats laughable, and marvel afresh at musics endless marvels!

We wish you a wonderful musical journey! Music in its most beautiful form is the all-healing language of love. Save the World was released on 5. Shortly thereafter, the book-inspired show Saving the World, was premiered at the Dortmund Konzerthaus and followed by a tour of Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

In these unique concerts, amazing talented musicians from all over the world, with special and often unusual skills, showcase their music, which in many cases, is only showcased on the streets or on the internet. Aleksey Igudesman was born in Leningrad at a very young age. He is known as a violinist, composer, conductor, comedian, film maker, actor, writer, poet, and entrepreneur, but his secret passion is cooking, eating out in luxurious restaurants and writing reviews on tripadvisor.

He has never won any competitions, mainly because he has never entered any. After studying the violin with acclaimed pedagogue Boris Kuschnir in Vienna he embarked on a successful career playing concerts around the world, composing music for movies and humans. His strings of choice are by Thomastik-Infeld. Igudesman writes a lot of music. He has known to start and finish works before breakfast.

Which may be less impressive in light of the fact that he sometimes eats breakfast in the evening. His compositions are published by Universal Edition and have been performed worldwide by soloists, ensembles and orchestras, such as the New York Philharmonic and Vienna Symphony Orchestra , often with his participation as a solo violinist and conductor.

Igudesman has written for and performed as a soloist on several movie soundtracks. John Malkovich slips into the role of the evil critic who believes the music of Beethoven, Chopin, Prokofiev and the likes to be weary and dreary. Hyung-ki Joo was born.

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IGUDESMAN \u0026 JOO - Mozart Bond

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