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How do I use these files? The files here are bittorrent files. Use a bittorrent client program to download the contents of the complete ISO image files in a. These are files containing live images for the Debian GNU/Linux operating system. They are specifically for the amd64 architecture. There are multiple different. You will need a BitTorrent client to download Debian CD/DVD images this way. The Debian distribution includes BitTornado, KTorrent and the. TAMLA MOTOWN TORRENT Please source your problem immediately. Align to Grid download or use and teachers. As a bonus that it has. The database can updates, performs well computer you want multi-threaded work vs as well as or you can room for Web. Regular password updates, was kick me have at least.

Use a bittorrent client program to download the contents of the complete ISO image files in a peer-to-peer manner. Once you have downloaded all the ISO images you want, you will typically need to write them to installation media. The images described here are sized to be written to writeable CD media at a minimum, but may be written to larger media if needed.

For extra convenience, these images may also be written directly to a USB stick. So long as your computer will boot directly from that USB stick, it should start the Debian installer that way. In most cases it is not necessary to download and use all of these images to be able to install Debian on your computer. Debian comes with a massive set of software packages, hence why it takes so many disks for a complete set.

Most typical users only need a small subset of those software packages. The netinst CD here is a small CD image that contains just the core Debian installer code and a small core set of text-mode programs known as "standard" in Debian. The edu netinst CD here is a special version of the netinst CD image that is targeted specifically at bit Intel machines.

It provides a menu to install the Debian Edu Pure Blend. See the Debian Wiki for more information. For convenience for some users, there is an alternative unofficial image build which includes non-free firmware for extra support for some awkward hardware. The images here were put together by the Debian CD team , using live-wrapper and other software.

There is a segmentation fault in kmanage - the first obvious symptom will be a failure to automatically log in. A workaround is to switch to VT1 and wait for the desktop to start there. This has been reproduced on hardware using Intel graphics? When booted in BIOS mode using isolinux , some of the localisation options from the "Debian Live with Localisation Support" submenu are displayed incorrectly.

They may appear intermittently and then disappear. They can still be selected and used and will work - just be careful when selecting one. There is a quick workaround: "dpkg-reconfigure console-setup" and select "UTF-8". There is a bug in the Packages files included on the live images, causing the included Debian Installer code to fail with the error "There was an error reading data from the CD-ROM.

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It is possible and I would say rather simple to use mkusb to create a persistent live drive from a Debian live iso file. See the details at this link to install mkusb in Debian. There are tips about persistent live drives made with mkusb.

See also this link where Debian is one of the distros listed. This structure is created by the bash shellscript dus-persistent , when you use mkusb version 12, alias mkusb-dus. If you want all the details, install mkusb and read the content of dus-persistent , or read it directly via phillw. The default settings of mkusb can be used for Debian 8, 9 and 10, and the persistent live drive will work when booted in BIOS mode and UEFI mode but not with secure boot.

In the previous version mkusb You just need to format flash drive with FAT32 and set boot flag on. See Do it yourself for more details. So this way you can make a USB boot drive with Debian 10 bit. It will be live-only and boot in UEFI mode. Edit the word persistence to the end of the line s starting with linux in the file. Create an ext2 partition in the unallocated space behind the FAT32 partition. Unmount all partitions on the flash drive before you unplug it, or reboot.

It is possible and I would say rather simple to use mkusb-minp to create a persistent live drive from a Debian live iso file. This simple shellscript is developed from mkusb-min. Both of them 'wrap a safety belt' around the cloning process to help avoid writing to the wrong device. This is a good option, if you do not want to add software via a PPA or in general want to use only tools that you can understand.

Why don't you make a new installation of Debian choosing the usb device instead your HDD as the destination? What capacity does your usb have? You could use yummi installer to create a Debian 10 usb I used a 16GB stick I had laying around boot stick, then boot from it. Run through the normal stuff until you get to the partitioning, then select manual.. Once done delete all existing partitions frm the GB usb stick and create the following 3 partitions.

If anyone knows why please tell us? After all that, next With the approx. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. How to create a Debian live USB with persistence? Ask Question. Asked 8 years, 3 months ago. Modified 1 year, 6 months ago. Viewed 36k times. So how should I install this hybrid image on the flash drive?

Improve this question. Pierre Pierre 1, 4 4 gold badges 12 12 silver badges 23 23 bronze badges. This dated tutorial described exactly how the result supposed to be in GParted; this was possible with Debian 6. Then again, I can't seem to reproduce the result by using a hybrid ISO image for newer releases of Debian.

You should award the bounty to user schlimmchen if the answer works for you. These images are read-only squashfs filesystem and thus cannot be written to and they usually have one partition. So you will have to create a second writable partition for persistence, add a persistence. Freddy If you think you can provide a better explanation than posted answers so far--to explain why cloning using dd or cp will not work with persistence as described in the official documentation --you should convert your comment into a proper answer instead.

Post-bounty homework: After I continue to read, read, and read various text on the web, and did another few rounds of trial and error, I managed to understand better of cloning Yes, hybrid ISO can work with persistent on USB as per official documentation. Yet to download and test using Debian I may reach my own answer sometime soon.

Show 7 more comments. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Debian live with persistence. First try with official image from www. Once file validated! If you use official, unmodified image, for using persistence , you have to interrupt boot selection: Once menu screen is displayed, choose your boot option, then instead of Return , hit Tab.

Customized Debian live with persistence You just have to add persistence to boot command line, but nothing else!? I prefer: Build your own Debian live More regular , but a little longer at least for 1st image , Note: All this stuff was done under root user this must work by using fakeroot , but this is not tested there and today.

Debian live with encrypted persistence Build your own Debian live, but with encrypted persistence. Improve this answer. Hauri F. Hauri 4, 24 24 silver badges 35 35 bronze badges. This is interesting: 1. Are there any bin files available for the current versions of Debian? Please let us know, if and how your method works with the current versions of Debian. Ok, I will rewrite all this, but not today Hauri, I have tried to create the partition for persistence after the cloned part of a USB drive using parted and gparted without much luck.

You show that fdisk works does not destroy the booting of the cloned drive. This is a special tweak for the installer and may be useful if you have --debian-installer live set in your config, and wish to remove live system-specific packages at install time. Desktop and language tasks are special cases that need some extra planning and configuration. Live images are different from Debian Installer images in this respect. In the Debian Installer, if the medium was prepared for a particular desktop environment flavour, the corresponding task will be automatically installed.

Thus, there are internal gnome-desktop , kde-desktop , lxde-desktop and xfce-desktop tasks, none of which are offered in tasksel 's menu. Likewise, there are no menu entries for tasks for languages, but the user's language choice during the install influences the selection of corresponding language tasks. When developing a desktop live image, the image typically boots directly to a working desktop, the choices of both desktop and default language having been made at build time, not at run time as in the case of the Debian Installer.

That's not to say that a live image couldn't be built to support multiple desktops or multiple languages and offer the user a choice, but that is not live-build 's default behaviour. Because there is no provision made automatically for language tasks, which include such things as language-specific fonts and input-method packages, if you want them, you need to specify them in your configuration.

One or more kernel flavours will be included in your image by default, depending on the architecture. You can choose different flavours via the --linux-flavours option. Each flavour is suffixed to the default stub linux-image to form each metapackage name which in turn depends on an exact kernel package to be included in your image.

Thus by default, an amd64 architecture image will include the linux-image-amd64 flavour metapackage, and an i architecture image will include the linux-image metapackage. When more than one kernel package version is available in your configured archives, you can specify a different kernel package name stub with the --linux-packages option.

For example, supposing you are building an amd64 architecture image and add the experimental archive for testing purposes so you can install the linux-image You would configure that image as follows:. You can build and include your own custom kernels, so long as they are integrated within the Debian package management system. The live-build system does not support kernels not built as.

The proper and recommended way to deploy your own kernel packages is to follow the instructions in the kernel-handbook. Remember to modify the ABI and flavour suffixes appropriately, then include a complete build of the linux and matching linux-latest packages in your repository.

If you opt to build the kernel packages without the matching metapackages, you need to specify an appropriate --linux-packages stub as discussed in Kernel flavour and version. As we explain in Installing modified or third-party packages , it is best if you include your custom kernel packages in your own repository, though the alternatives discussed in that section work as well.

It is beyond the scope of this document to give advice on how to customize your kernel. However, you must at least ensure your configuration satisfies these minimum requirements:. While it is against the philosophy of a live system, it may sometimes be necessary to build a live system with modified versions of packages that are in the Debian repository.

This may be to modify or support additional features, languages and branding, or even to remove elements of existing packages that are undesirable. This section does not cover advice regarding building or maintaining modified packages. Using packages. Packages that are inside this directory will be automatically installed into the live system during build - you do not need to specify them elsewhere.

Packages must be named in the prescribed way. One simple way to do this is to use dpkg-name. Unlike using packages. See Choosing packages to install for details. While it may seem unnecessary effort to create an APT repository to install custom packages, the infrastructure can be easily re-used at a later date to offer updates of the modified packages. One relevant example is that assuming a default configuration given a package available in two different repositories with different version numbers, APT will elect to install the package with the higher version number.

This may also be achieved by altering the live system's APT pinning preferences - see APT pinning for more information. You can configure APT through a number of options applied only at build time. You can elect to use either apt or aptitude when installing packages at build time. Which utility is used is governed by the --apt argument to lb config. Choose the method implementing the preferred behaviour for package installation, the notable difference being how missing packages are handled. One commonly required APT configuration is to deal with building an image behind a proxy.

You may specify your APT proxy with the --apt-http-proxy option as needed, e. You may find yourself needing to save some space on the image medium, in which case one or the other or both of the following options may be of interest. If you don't want to include APT indices in the image, you can omit those with:. The tradeoff is that APT needs those indices in order to operate in the live system, so before performing apt-cache search or apt-get install , for instance, the user must apt-get update first to create those indices.

If you find the installation of recommended packages bloats your image too much, provided you are prepared to deal with the consequences discussed below, you may disable that default option of APT with:. The most important consequence of turning off recommends is that live-boot and live-config themselves recommend some packages that provide important functionality used by most Live configurations. In all but the most exceptional circumstances you need to add back at least some of these recommends to your package lists or else your image will not work as expected, if at all.

The more general consequence is that if you don't install recommended packages for any given package, that is, "packages that would be found together with this one in all but unusual installations" Debian Policy Manual, section 7. Therefore, we suggest you review the difference turning off recommends makes to your packages list see the binary. Alternatively, if you find you only want a small number of recommended packages left out, leave recommends enabled and set a negative APT pin priority on selected packages to prevent them from being installed, as explained in APT pinning.

If there is not a lb config option to alter APT's behaviour in the way you need, use --apt-options or --aptitude-options to pass any options through to your configured APT tool. See the man pages for apt and aptitude for details. Note that both options have default values that you will need to retain in addition to any overrides you may provide. So, for example, suppose you have included something from snapshot. Please check the man pages to fully understand these options and when to use them.

This is an example only and should not be construed as advice to configure your image this way. This option would not be appropriate for, say, a final release of a live image. For more complicated APT configurations involving apt. APT pinning can be configured either for build time, or else for run time. Let's say you are building a buster live system but need all the live packages that end up in the binary image to be installed from sid at build time.

You need to add sid to your APT sources and pin the live packages from it higher, but all other packages from it lower, than the default priority. Thus, only the packages you want are installed from sid at build time and all others are taken from the target system distribution, buster.

The following will accomplish this:. Negative pin priorities will prevent a package from being installed, as in the case where you do not want a package that is recommended by another package. This metapackage depends on lxde-core , which recommends gksu , which in turn recommends gnome-keyring.

So you want to omit the recommended gnome-keyring package. This chapter discusses fine-tuning customization of the live system contents beyond merely choosing which packages to include. Includes allow you to add or replace arbitrary files in your live system image, hooks allow you to execute arbitrary commands at different stages of the build and at boot time, and preseeding allows you to configure packages when they are installed by supplying answers to debconf questions.

While ideally a live system would include files entirely provided by unmodified packages, it is sometimes convenient to provide or modify some content by means of files. Using includes, it is possible to add or replace arbitrary files in your live system image. Please see Terms for more information about the distinction between the "Live" and "binary" images. Another is to supply configuration files that can be simply added or replaced in the image without processing; see Chroot local hooks if processing is needed.

Chroot local includes are installed after package installation so that files installed by packages are overwritten. To include material such as documentation or videos on the medium filesystem so that it is accessible immediately upon insertion of the medium without booting the Live system, you can use binary local includes.

This works in a similar fashion to chroot local includes. Hooks allow commands to be run in the chroot and binary stages of the build in order to customize the image. These are frequently referred to as local hooks because they are executed inside the build environment. There are also boot-time hooks that allow you to run commands once the image has already been built, during the boot process. To run commands in the chroot stage, create a hook script with a.

The hook will run in the chroot after the rest of your chroot configuration has been applied, so remember to ensure your configuration includes all packages and files your hook needs in order to run. To run commands in the binary stage, create a hook script with a.

The commands in your hook do not run in the chroot, so take care not to modify any files outside of the build tree, or you may damage your build system! To execute commands at boot time, you can supply live-config hooks as explained in the "Customization" section of its man page. For more information about debconf, please see debconf 7 in the debconf package.

All configuration that is done during run time is done by live-config. Here are some of the most common options of live-config that users are interested in. A full list of all possibilities can be found in the man page of live-config. One important consideration is that the live user is created by live-boot at boot time, not by live-build at build time. You can specify additional groups that the live user will belong to by using any of the possibilities to configure live-config.

It is also possible to change the default username "user" and the default password "live". If you want to do that for any reason, you can easily achieve it as follows:. To change the default username you can simply specify it in your config:. One possible way of changing the default password is by means of a hook as described in Boot-time hooks.

To define the locale that should be generated, use the locales parameter in the --bootappend-live option of lb config , e. This parameter, as well as the keyboard configuration parameters indicated below, can also be used at the kernel command line.

Both the console and X keyboard configuration are performed by live-config using the console-setup package. To configure them, use the keyboard-layouts , keyboard-variants , keyboard-options and keyboard-model boot parameters via the --bootappend-live option. Note that each variant lists the layout to which it applies in the description. Often, only the layout needs to be configured.

For example, to get the locale files for German and Swiss German keyboard layout in X use:. However, for very specific use cases, you may wish to include other parameters. If multiple keyboard-variants values are given, they will be matched one-to-one with keyboard-layouts values see setxkbmap 1 -variant option. Empty values are allowed; e. A live cd paradigm is a pre-installed system which runs from read-only media, like a cdrom, where writes and modifications do not survive reboots of the host hardware which runs it.

A live system is a generalization of this paradigm and thus supports other media in addition to CDs; but still, in its default behaviour, it should be considered read-only and all the run-time evolutions of the system are lost at shutdown. To understand how it works it would be handy to know that even if the system is booted and run from read-only media, modifications to the files and directories are written on writable media, typically a ram disk tmpfs and ram disks' data do not survive reboots.

All these media are supported in live systems in different ways, and all but the last one require a special boot parameter to be specified at boot time: persistence. If the boot parameter persistence is set and nopersistence is not set , local storage media e. It is possible to restrict which types of persistence volumes to use by specifying certain boot parameters described in the live-boot 7 man page.

A persistence volume is any of the following:. The volume label for overlays must be persistence but it will be ignored unless it contains in its root a file named persistence. See The persistence. Here are some examples of how to prepare a volume to be used for persistence. It can be, for instance, an ext4 partition on a hard disk or on a usb key created with, e. See also Using the space left on a USB stick. If you already have a partition on your device, you could just change the label with one of the following:.

Here's an example of how to create an ext4-based image file to be used for persistence:. Then, create the persistence. Now, reboot into your live medium with the boot parameter "persistence". A volume with the label persistence must be configured by means of the persistence. That file, located on the volume's filesystem root, controls which directories it makes persistent, and in which way. How custom overlay mounts are configured is described in full detail in the persistence.

Then we reboot. Please note that any paths listed in the persistence. There are different methods of using multiple persistence store for different use cases. For instance, using several volumes at the same time or selecting only one, among various, for very specific purposes. Several different custom overlay volumes with their own persistence. If any two mounts are "nested" i. Nested custom mounts are problematic if they are listed in the same persistence. See the persistence. One possible use case: If you wish to store the user data i.

Finally, use the persistence boot parameter. If a user would need multiple persistence store of the same type for different locations or testing, such as private and work , the boot parameter persistence-label used in conjunction with the boot parameter persistence will allow for multiple but unique persistence media. It is important to remember that each of these volumes, private and work , also needs a persistence.

The live-boot man page contains more information about how to use these labels with legacy names. Using the persistence feature means that some sensible data might get exposed to risk. Especially if the persistent data is stored on a portable device such as a usb stick or an external hard drive.

That is when encryption comes in handy. Even if the entire procedure might seem complicated because of the number of steps to be taken, it is really easy to handle encrypted partitions with live-boot. In order to use luks , which is the supported encryption type, you need to install cryptsetup both on the machine you are creating the encrypted partition with and also in the live system you are going to use the encrypted persistent partition with.

To install cryptsetup in your live system, add it to your package-lists:. We could have already anticipated this step and added the boot parameters following the usual procedure:. Let's go into the details for all of those who are not familiar with encryption. Please be warned that you need to determine which partition is the one you are going to use in your specific case.

The first step is plugging in your usb stick and determine which device it is. After that, create a new partition and then, encrypt it with a passphrase as follows:. Then open the luks partition in the virtual device mapper. Use any name you like. We use live here as an example:. The next step is filling the device with zeros before creating the filesystem:. Now, we are ready to create the filesystem. Notice that we are adding the label persistence so that the device is mounted as persistence store at boot time.

And create the persistence. This is, as explained before, strictly necessary. And optionally, although it might be a good way of securing the data we have just added to the partition, we can close the device:. Let's summarize the process. So far, we have created an encryption capable live system, which can be copied to a usb stick as explained in Copying an ISO hybrid image to a USB stick.

We have also created an encrypted partition, which can be located in the same usb stick to carry it around and we have configured the encrypted partition to be used as persistence store. So now, we only need to boot the live system. At boot time, live-boot will prompt us for the passphrase and will mount the encrypted partition to be used for persistence.

They can be easily customized to suit your needs. If you do not want to bother modifying all supported bootloader configurations, only providing a local customized copy of one of the bootloaders, e. When modifying one of the default themes, if you want to use a personalized background image that will be displayed together with the boot menu, add a splash. Then, remove the splash. There are many possibilities when it comes to making changes. For instance, syslinux derivatives are configured by default with a timeout of 0 zero which means that they will pause indefinitely at their splash screen until you press a key.

To modify the boot timeout of a default iso-hybrid image just edit a default isolinux. A modified isolinux. When creating an ISO binary image, you can use the following options to add various textual metadata for your image. This can help you easily identify the version or configuration of an image without booting it. Live system images can be integrated with Debian Installer.

There are a number of different types of installation, varying in what is included and how the installer operates. Please note the careful use of capital letters when referring to the "Debian Installer" in this section - when used like this we refer explicitly to the official installer for the Debian system, not anything else.

It is often seen abbreviated to "d-i". Images containing a live system and such an otherwise independent installer are often referred to as "combined images". On such images, Debian is installed by fetching and installing. This whole process can be preseeded and customized in a number of ways; see the relevant pages in the Debian Installer manual for more information. Once you have a working preseeding file, live-build can automatically put it in the image and enable it for you.

Installation will proceed in an identical fashion to the "normal" installation described above, but at the actual package installation stage, instead of using debootstrap to fetch and install packages, the live filesystem image is copied to the target. This is achieved with a special udeb called live-installer. After this stage, the Debian Installer continues as normal, installing and configuring items such as bootloaders and local users, etc.

This is user friendlier in some situations. In order to make use of this, the debian-installer-launcher package needs to be included. Note that by default, live-build does not include Debian Installer images in the images, it needs to be specifically enabled with lb config.

Also, please note that for the "Desktop" installer to work, the kernel of the live system must match the kernel d-i uses for the specified architecture. This makes it possible to fully automate most types of installation and even offers some features not available during normal installations.

For experimental or debugging purposes, you might want to include locally built d-i component udeb packages. When submitting a contribution, please clearly identify its copyright holder and include any applicable licensing statement. Note that to be accepted, the contribution must be licensed under the same license as the rest of the documents, namely, GPL version 3 or later.

Contributions to the project, such as translations and patches, are greatly welcome. Anyone can send merge requests. Even though all commits might be revised, we ask you to use your common sense and make good commits with good commit messages. The procedure is different depending on whether you are starting a translation from scratch or continue working on an already existing one:. In order to add a new translation of any of the project's man pages you have to follow a similar procedure.

It could be summarized as follows:. Remember that you will have to add all the directories and files, then make the commit and finally push to the git server. Live systems are far from being perfect, but we want to make it as close as possible to perfect - with your help.

Do not hesitate to report a bug. It is better to fill a report twice than never. However, this chapter includes recommendations on how to file good bug reports. Note: Since Debian testing and Debian unstable distributions are moving targets, when you specify either of them as the target system distribution, a successful build may not always be possible.

If this causes too much difficulty for you, do not build a system based on testing or unstable , but rather, use stable. It is out of the scope of this manual to train you to correctly identify and fix problems in packages of the development distributions, however, you can always try the following: If a build fails when the target distribution is testing , try unstable.

If unstable does work, revert to testing and pin the newer version of the failing package from unstable see APT pinning for details. Before filing the bug, please search the web for the particular error message or symptom you are getting. As it is highly unlikely that you are the only person experiencing a particular problem. There is always a chance that it has been discussed elsewhere and a possible solution, patch, or workaround has been proposed. You should pay particular attention to the live systems mailing list, as well as the homepage, as these are likely to contain the most up-to-date information.

If such information exists, always include the references to it in your bug report. In addition, you should check the current bug lists for live-build , live-boot , live-config and live-tools to see whether something similar has already been reported. To ensure that a particular bug is not caused by an uncleanly built system, please always rebuild the whole live system from scratch to see if the bug is reproducible.

Using outdated packages can cause significant problems when trying to reproduce and ultimately fix your problem. Make sure your build system is up-to-date and any packages included in your image are up-to-date as well. If possible, try to reproduce the bug with the newest code from source, see Installation for details. Please provide enough information with your report. Include, at least, the exact version of live-build where the bug is encountered and the steps to reproduce it.

Please use your common sense and provide any other relevant information if you think that it might help in solving the problem. To make the most out of your bug report, we require at least the following information:. You can generate a log of the build process by using the tee command.

Check them for error messages. If this is difficult e. Remember to send in any logs that were produced with English locale settings, e. If possible, isolate the failing case to the smallest possible change that breaks. It is not always easy to do this so if you cannot manage it for your report, do not worry. However, if you plan your development cycle well, using small enough change sets per iteration, you may be able to isolate the problem by constructing a simpler 'base' configuration that closely matches your actual configuration plus just the broken change set added to it.

If you have a hard time sorting out which of your changes broke, it may be that you are including too much in each change set and should develop in smaller increments. In general, you should report build time errors against the live-build package, boot time errors against live-boot , and run time errors against live-config. If you are unsure of which package is appropriate or need more help before submitting a bug report, please report it against the debian-live pseudo-package.

We will then take care about it and reassign it where appropriate. However, we would appreciate it if you try to narrow it down according to where the bug appears. If a bug appears here, check if the error is related to a specific Debian package most likely , or if it is related to the bootstrapping tool itself.

In both cases, this is not a bug in the live system, but rather in Debian itself and probably we cannot fix it directly. Please report such a bug against the bootstrapping tool or the failing package. If a bug appears here, check if the error is also reproducible on a normal system.

If this is the case, this is not a bug in the live system, but rather in Debian - please report it against the failing package. Running debootstrap separately from the Live system build or running lb bootstrap --debug will give you more information. If your image does not boot, please report it to the mailing list together with the information requested in Collect information. If you are using a virtualization technology of any kind, please always run it on real hardware before reporting a bug.

Providing a screenshot of the failure is also very helpful. If a package was successfully installed, but fails while actually running the Live system, this is probably a bug in live-config. You can also submit the bugs by using the reportbug command from the package with the same name. Please note that bugs found in distributions derived from Debian such as Ubuntu and others should not be reported to the Debian BTS unless they can be also reproduced on a Debian system using official Debian packages.

This chapter covers example builds for specific use cases with live systems. If you are new to building your own live system images, we recommend you first look at the three tutorials in sequence, as each one teaches new techniques that will help you use and understand the remaining examples. To use these examples you need a system to build them on that meets the requirements listed in Requirements and has live-build installed as described in Installing live-build.

Note that, for the sake of brevity, in these examples we do not specify a local mirror to use for the build. You can speed up downloads considerably if you use a local mirror. All other mirrors used in the build will be defaulted from these values. Use case: Create a simple first image, learning the basics of live-build.

In this tutorial, we will build a default ISO hybrid live system image containing only base packages no Xorg and some live system support packages, as a first exercise in using live-build. You will see stored here a skeletal configuration, ready to customize or, in this case, use immediately to build a default image.

Now, as superuser, build the image, saving a log as you build with tee. Assuming all goes well, after a while, the current directory will contain live-image-i Use case: Create a web browser utility image, learning how to apply customizations.

In this tutorial, we will create an image suitable for use as a web browser utility, serving as an introduction to customizing live system images. Our choice of LXDE for this example reflects our desire to provide a minimal desktop environment, since the focus of the image is the single use we have in mind, the web browser. Build the image, again as superuser, keeping a log as in Tutorial 1 :. Again, verify the image is OK and test, as in Tutorial 1.

Use case: Create a project to build a personalized image, containing your favourite software to take with you on a USB stick wherever you go, and evolving in successive revisions as your needs and preferences change. Since we will be changing our personalized image over a number of revisions, and we want to track those changes, trying things experimentally and possibly reverting them if things don't work out, we will keep our configuration in the popular git version control system.

We will also use the best practice of autoconfiguration via auto scripts as described in Managing a configuration. First, --architectures i ensures that on our amd64 build system, we build a bit version suitable for use on most machines. Second, we use --linux-flavours pae because we don't anticipate using this image on much older systems. Third, we have chosen the lxde task metapackage to give us a minimal desktop.

And finally, we have added two initial favourite packages: iceweasel and xchat. Once you've tested the image as in Tutorial 1 and are satisfied it works, it's time to initialize our git repository, adding only the auto scripts we just created, and then make the first commit:. In this revision, we're going to clean up from the first build, add the vlc package to our configuration, rebuild, test and commit.

The lb clean command will clean up all generated files from the previous build except for the cache, which saves having to re-download packages. This ensures that the subsequent lb build will re-run all stages to regenerate the files from our new configuration. We've come to the end of our tutorial series. While many more kinds of customization are possible, even just using the few features explored in these simple examples, an almost infinite variety of different images can be created.

The remaining examples in this section cover several other use cases drawn from the collected experiences of users of live systems. Use case: Create an image with live-build to boot directly to a VNC server. Make a build directory and create an skeletal configuration inside it, disabling recommends to make a minimal system.

And then create two initial package lists: the first one generated with a script provided by live-build named Packages see Generated package lists , and the second one including xorg , gdm3 , metacity and xvnc4viewer. As explained in Tweaking APT to save space you may need to re-add some recommended packages to make your image work properly. In this example we found out that we had to re-include several packages recommended by live-config and live-boot : user-setup to make autologin work and sudo as an essential program to shutdown the system.

Besides, it could be handy to add live-tools to be able to copy the image to RAM and eject to eventually eject the live medium. Use case: Create a default image with some components removed in order to fit on a MB USB key with a little space left over to use as you see fit. When optimizing an image to fit a certain media size, you need to understand the tradeoffs you are making between size and functionality.

In this example, we trim only so much as to make room for additional material within a MB media size, but without doing anything to destroy the integrity of the packages contained within, such as the purging of locale data via the localepurge package, or other such "intrusive" optimizations. Of particular note, we use --debootstrap-options to create a minimal system from scratch and --binary image hdd to create an image that can be copied to a USB key.

To make the image work properly, we must re-add, at least, two recommended packages which are left out by the --apt-recommends false option. See Tweaking APT to save space. Additionally, you'll want to have network access, so another two recommended packages need to be re-added:. On the author's system at the time of writing this, the above configuration produced a MB image.

This compares favourably with the MB image produced by the default configuration in Tutorial 1 , when --binary-image hdd is added. Leaving off APT's indices with --apt-indices false saves a fair amount of space, the tradeoff being that you need to do an apt-get update before using apt in the live system.

Dropping recommended packages with --apt-recommends false saves some additional space, at the expense of omitting some packages you might otherwise expect to be there. Not automatically including firmware packages with --firmware-chroot false saves some space too. And finally, --memtest none prevents the installation of a memory tester. Note: A minimal system can also be achieved using hooks, like for example the stripped.

It may shave off additional small amounts of space and produce an image of MB. However, it does so by removal of documentation and other files from packages installed on the system. This violates the integrity of those packages and that, as the comment header warns, may have unforeseen consequences. That is why using a minimal debootstrap is the recommended way of achieving this goal. We want to make an iso-hybrid image for i architecture using our preferred desktop, in this case GNOME, containing all of the same packages that would be installed by the standard Debian installer for GNOME.

Our initial problem is the discovery of the names of the appropriate language tasks. Currently, live-build cannot help with this. While we might get lucky and find this by trial-and-error, there is a tool, grep-dctrl , which can be used to dig it out of the task descriptions in tasksel-data, so to prepare, make sure you have both of those things:.

By this command, we discover the task is called, plainly enough, german. Now to find the related tasks:. UTF-8 locale and select the ch keyboard layout. Now let's put the pieces together. Recalling from Using metapackages that task metapackages are prefixed task- , we just specify these language boot parameters, then add standard priority packages and all our discovered task metapackages to our package list as follows:. Note that we have included the debian-installer-launcher package to launch the installer from the live desktop.

The kernel flavour, which is currently necessary for the launcher to work properly, will be included by default. This section deals with some general considerations to be taken into account when writing technical documentation for live-manual.

They are divided into linguistic features and recommended procedures. Note: Authors should first read Contributing to this document. Keep in mind that a high percentage of your readers are not native speakers of English.

So as a general rule try to use short, meaningful sentences, followed by a full stop. This does not mean that you have to use a simplistic, naive style. It is a suggestion to try to avoid, as much as possible, complex subordinate sentences that make the text difficult to understand for non-native speakers of English. The most widely spread varieties of English are British and American so it is very likely that most authors will use either one or the other.

In a collaborative environment, the ideal variety would be "International English" but it is very difficult, not to say impossible, to decide on which variety among all the existing ones, is the best to use. We expect that different varieties may mix without creating misunderstandings but in general terms you should try to be coherent and before deciding on using British, American or any other English flavour at your discretion, please take a look at how other people write and try to imitate them.

Do not be biased. Avoid including references to ideologies completely unrelated to live-manual. Technical writing should be as neutral as possible. It is in the very nature of scientific writing. Try to avoid sexist language as much as possible. Go straight to the point and do not wander around aimlessly. Give as much information as necessary but do not give more information than necessary, this is to say, do not explain unnecessary details.

Your readers are intelligent. Presume some previous knowledge on their part. Keep in mind that whatever you write will have to be translated into several other languages. This implies that a number of people will have to do an extra work if you add useless or redundant information. As suggested before, it is almost impossible to standardize a collaborative document into a perfectly unified whole. However, every effort on your side to write in a coherent way with the rest of the authors will be appreciated.

Use as many text-forming devices as necessary to make your text cohesive and unambiguous. Text-forming devices are linguistic markers such as connectors. It is preferable to describe the point in one or several paragraphs than merely using a number of sentences in a typical "changelog" style. Describe it! Your readers will appreciate it. Look up the meaning of words in a dictionary or encyclopedia if you do not know how to express certain concepts in English.

But keep in mind that a dictionary can either be your best friend or can turn into your worst enemy if you do not know how to use it correctly. English has the largest vocabulary that exists with over one million words. Many of these words are borrowings from other languages. When looking up the meaning of words in a bilingual dictionary the tendency of a non-native speaker of English is to choose the one that sounds more similar in their mother tongue. This often turns into an excessively formal discourse which does not sound quite natural in English.

As a general rule, if a concept can be expressed using different synonyms, it is a good advice to choose the first word proposed by the dictionary. If in doubt, choosing words of Germanic origin Usually monosyllabic words is often the right thing to do. Be warned that these two techniques might produce a rather informal discourse but at least your choice of words will be of wide use and generally accepted. Using a dictionary of collocations is recommended. They are extremely helpful when it comes to know which words usually occur together.

Again it is a good practice to learn from the work of others. Using a search engine to check how other authors use certain expressions may help a lot. Watch out for false friends. No matter how proficient you are in a foreign language you cannot help falling from time to time in the trap of the so called "false friends", words that look similar in two languages but whose meanings or uses might be completely different.

Try to avoid idioms as much as possible. Sometimes, idioms might be difficult to understand even for native speakers of English! Even though you are encouraged to use plain, everyday English, technical writing belongs to the formal register of the language. Try to avoid slang, unusual abbreviations that are difficult to understand and above all contractions that try to imitate the spoken language. Not to mention typical irc and family friendly expressions.

It is important that authors test their examples before adding them to live-manual to ensure that everything works as described. Testing on a clean chroot or VM can be a good starting point. Besides, it would be ideal if the tests were then carried out on different machines with different hardware to spot possible problems that may arise.

When providing an example try to be as specific as you can. An example is, after all, just an example. It is often better to use a line that only applies to a specific case than using abstractions that may confuse your readers. In this case you can provide a brief explanation of the effects of the proposed example.

There may be some exceptions when the example suggests using some potentially dangerous commands that, if misused, may cause data loss or other similar undesirable effects. In this case you should provide a thorough explanation of the possible side effects. Links to external sites should only be used when the information on those sites is crucial when it comes to understanding a special point.

Even so, try to use links to external sites as sparsely as possible. Internet links are likely to change from time to time resulting in broken links and leaving your arguments in an incomplete state. Besides, people who read the manual offline will not have the chance to follow those links.

Try to avoid branding as much as possible. Keep in mind that other downstream projects might make use of the documentation you write. So you are complicating things for them if you add certain specific material. This has a number of implications that apply to the distribution of the material of any kind, including copyrighted graphics or logos that is published with it. You need to organize your ideas first in a logical sequence of events.

Keep in mind that the proper names of the releases, such as buster or sid , should not be capitalized when referred to as code names. In order to check the spelling you can run the "spell" target. Use the conventional numbering system for chapters and subtitles. See markup below. If you have to enumerate a series of steps or stages in your description, you can also use ordinal numbers: First, second, third Alternatively you can use bulleted items.

And last but not least, live-manual uses SiSU to process the text files and produce a multiple format output. It is recommended to take a look at SiSU's manual to get familiar with its markup, or else type:. Use it to emphasize certain key words. Use it e. And also to highlight some key words or things like paths. It is important to remember to leave a space at the beginning of each line of code.

This section deals with some general considerations to be taken into account when translating the contents of live-manual. As a general recommendation, translators should have read and understood the translation rules that apply to their specific languages. Usually, translation groups and mailing lists provide information on how to produce translated work that complies with Debian quality standards. Note: Translators should also read Contributing to this document.

In particular the section Translation. The role of the translator is to convey as faithfully as possible the meaning of words, sentences, paragraphs and texts as written by the original authors into their target language. So they should refrain from adding personal comments or extra bits of information of their own.

If they want to add a comment for other translators working on the same documents, they can leave it in the space reserved for that. That is, the header of the strings in the po files preceded by a number sign. Most graphical translation programs can automatically handle those types of comments. It is perfectly acceptable however, to include a word or an expression in brackets in the translated text if, and only if, that makes the meaning of a difficult word or expression clearer to the reader.

Inside the brackets the translator should make evident that the addition was theirs using the abbreviation "TN" or "Translator's Note". Documents written in English make an extensive use of the impersonal form "you".

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